Pear is the most common fruit tree. It is quite unpretentious, so it can be grown in different climatic zones. The fruits are tasty, juicy and healthy, thanks to which every gardener wants to have the best variety.
In this article we will talk about the description of the Conference pear variety, find out its advantages and disadvantages and understand how to deal with pests.
Conference is a variety of pears. The fruit got its name thanks to a conference on pear cultivation, which took place in Britain. Mass acquaintance with this variety took place much later.
Fruit ripening occurs in the second half of September. Fruits are elongated and large in size. The color is greenish-yellow, the skin is hard with a matte shade, with inclusions of small brown spots. The pulp is juicy, aromatic, soft and melts in your mouth. The variety has a tart taste due to the tannin content in the skin.
The height of a fruit tree can reach 5 meters, during the season the tree sprouts more than 60 cm, but this depends on weather conditions.
The crown of the tree is wide and dense, reminiscent of a cone. The fruit can not ripen only if the summer is cool. The variety hibernates badly.
Advantages of the variety:
The fruit does not ripen on the tree, so the crop must be removed and stored in a cool, dry place. After lying down for several days, the pear will ripen, begin to gain aroma and delicate taste.
The advantages include flexibility to heat treatment without loss of taste and beneficial properties. You can make jam and other delicacies from it. Due to the fact that it contains acids that help improve digestive processes.
The fruits must be eaten correctly. You should not eat a pear on an empty stomach and it is strictly forbidden to drink it with water. The fruit can be eaten only half an hour after the completion of the meal. Only ripe fruits have healing properties.
The calorie content of a pear is quite low, only 42 kcal per 100 grams of product. They are recommended to be included in various types of diets.
Planting in the garden begins with choosing a place. The variety loves loose soil, but at the same time, it must retain moisture. Loose loam or black soil is well suited for growing pears.
Pear loves sunlight, but does not like strong winds. In winter, winds can cause freezing, in summer and spring - it knocks down ovaries and fruits... Therefore, place the Conference in a sheltered place from the wind. High humidity can cause harm to the tree, therefore, do not choose lowlands for planting.
Heat resistant variety... Remember that the correct location of the tree will help you get a good harvest faster. The mature plant is large enough that there should be no perennials around it.
It is not advisable to plant a pear next to buildings. Since the crown of the tree begins to form improperly, resulting in a poor harvest.
Young seedlings are planted in autumn. Planting pear varieties The conference is best at the end of September. A young tree will have time to gain strength, root and prepare for winter. Before the onset of frost, it is necessary to shelter the tree from rodents and frost.
For planting, choose only annual seedlings with a developed root system. The branches of a young tree must be elastic. Before planting the plant, it must be soaked in clean water with the addition of a growth stimulator for 12 hours.
Spring care consists in removing the winter shelter and inspecting for damage. All damage must be disinfected. For this, you can use copper sulfate. The lower part of the trunk is whitewashed with a solution of lime with the addition of PVA glue. In this way, you can destroy pests and pathogens. Around the tree, the soil is well loosened, as a result of which bacteria, spores and pest larvae are destroyed.
To increase the yield and to strengthen the immunity of the tree, spring feeding is necessary.
Before flowering, the tree is sprayed with a solution of urea, or vitriol. In autumn, the tree is fed with nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Top dressing should be carried out immediately after harvesting, otherwise the plant will not have time to prepare for winter.
Preparing for wintering is a rather important undertaking. In November, the tree must be covered. Cover the roots and the lower third of the trunk with soil about 25 cm thick.
The first harvest from a young tree will be after about 5 years of life in one place. About 40 kg of fruits are removed from one adult tree. Harvesting begins at the end of September. It is better to remove unripe fruits, since they will not be able to gain juiciness and softness on the tree.
Harvesting is necessary only in good weather, it must be dry. In order to avoid damage to the fruit, collect them in baskets, then spread them out in a ventilated area for several days. This is necessary so that unnecessary moisture evaporates from them, which prevents long-term storage.
The conference pear is susceptible to various pests and diseases. Watch the tree and in case of any changes, immediately solve the problem radically.
For prevention, you can use a solution of urea or a solution of Bordeaux mixture.
Tatiana, Moscow region: I can say with complete confidence that the conference pear has been growing at my summer cottage for a long time. She survives the winter well, gives a good harvest.
Marina, Rostov on Don: The conference is the taste of my childhood. My grandfather's pear was growing in the shade. They collected a good harvest every year, the fruits were eaten until spring. If we compare the fruits with the store ones, we have them a little smaller, and even better in taste. The tree is not very tall, although it froze out last year, but we are inclined to believe that a mulberry tree was planted next to it, most likely it influenced the development of the pear.
Katerina, Sumy: A pear has been growing in my summer cottage for many years. Bears fruit every year. They waited for the first harvest for almost 10 years, the harvest on the tree does not ripen, so he removes the pears and puts them on the cupboard. The taste of this variety is extraordinary. I'm happy with the variety and recommend it to everyone.
Pear Conference is the most fruitful and unpretentious variety. The key to a good harvest depends on proper planting and timely disease control. Pay attention to the variety, and you will get a rich and healthy harvest.
Conference is a pear variety that is very popular among gardeners not only in our country, but all over the world. The fruits of this pear are distinguished by a pleasant taste, an interesting elongated shape, early ripening, and the tree itself is very fruitful, moreover, very hardy, has excellent immunity. All these important properties make the Conference pear a desirable purchase for most gardeners.
In the article, we will consider the features of this variety: we will find out what its yield, external characteristics, and other important qualities are. In addition, we will learn how to plant a Conference pear and how to care for it. We will also take an interest in the opinion of gardeners who are already growing this interesting variety in their possessions.
The culture begins to bear fruit 5-6 years after planting. 40-60 kg of fruits are harvested from one tree. The yield is annual.
The pear blooms in mid-May, and at the end of September it is already possible to harvest. The fruits are harvested unripe, after a few days they become juicy and tasty. They tolerate transportation well, can be stored for 6 months.
From pears of this variety, delicious jam, juice, compote are obtained, since the fruits themselves are very sweet and do not require the addition of a large amount of sugar.
The conference pear does not need pollinators, but growing and flowering trees can increase yields. She is also a good pollinator herself.
First of all, take care of the size of the area on which the pear will grow.
This tree is large, it grows strongly, it will require a lot of space.
It is better if the landing site is closed from the wind. You need loose soil with good air circulation.
After that, drainage material is poured onto the bottom, usually fine gravel is used for this. Sprinkle it with soil. Then cover with phosphate and potassium fertilizers. Toss with earth. The bottom layer of the soil is prepared.
Place the seedling in the hole, spread the roots and cover them with earth. As a result, the root collar should rise above the soil surface. Pour plenty of water over the hole.
Remember that it is good to plant a conference pear on a quince. After this procedure, the tree bears fruit earlier.
Pear The conference needs preventive measures. In their absence, there is a risk of disease. Trees can infect:
The recommended work scheme is shown in the table.
|Season||Type of work|
|Fall||Cleaning the area from plant debris, roots of perennial weeds|
|Whitewashing of skeletal branches, trunk|
|Digging row spacings|
|Treatment of crowns, near-trunk circles with a 3% solution of copper sulfate|
|Spring (early)||Treatment of the crown with a pesticide solution|
|Trapping belts are put on the trunks|
From insect pests, the Conference pear is attacked by:
To obtain regular and high yields of the Conference pear, it is necessary to provide proper and timely care.
Pear Conference needs regular and abundant watering. With a lack of moisture, the fruits become small and tasteless. If the lack of moisture becomes critical, the pear can throw off some of the fruits or even all. Typically five to twelve waterings are required per season. This amount depends on the frequency of precipitation, air temperature and humidity. To determine if a pear needs watering, they do it simply. A handful of earth is taken from the trunk circle and squeezed into a lump. The lump is thrown to the ground from a height of about one meter. If it has crumbled, the tree needs watering. Accordingly, if the lump remains intact, then the earth is sufficiently wet and watering is not needed. Single trees are usually watered individually in formed tree-trunk circles. In the case of row plantings, especially when growing on a trellis, it is advisable to equip a drip irrigation system. In this case, water consumption and the need for loosening are reduced. And also the intervals between waterings increase in the case of mulching the trunks. In the fall, before leaving for the winter, water-charging irrigation is carried out. This stage helps to increase the winter hardiness of the pear.
Drip irrigation is convenient for group planting of pears
Regular application of top dressing starting from 3-4 years after planting will provide high and annual yields of high-quality fruits. In the spring, 20-30 grams of ammonium nitrate, urea or nitroammophoska are annually brought in for digging. And also at this time, organic fertilizers are applied at the rate of 5-7 kilograms per 1 m2. It can be humus, compost, peat. They are brought in once every 3-4 years. During flowering, to increase the number of ovaries, the plant is sprayed with a solution of 0.2 g of boric acid in one liter of water.
At the beginning of summer, potash fertilizers (potassium monophosphate, potassium sulfate) are applied at the rate of 10–20 g / m2, previously dissolving them in water for watering trees. And also during the period of growth and ripening of fruits, the pear is fed with liquid organic fertilizers.To do this, pre-insist two liters of mullein in ten liters of water for 5-10 days. Instead of a mullein, you can take one liter of bird droppings or 5-7 kilograms of fresh grass. The finished infusion is filtered and used for watering. Use one liter of such a concentrate per 1 m2 of the trunk circle, pre-diluting it with water in a ratio of 1 to 10. During the season, you can make 2-3 such dressings.
In autumn, superphosphate is introduced under the digging in an amount of 30–40 g / m2. In addition, trace elements are also needed. Usually they are used as part of complex mineral fertilizers.
Methods for pruning and shaping the crown of a pear The conference depends on the rootstock on which it is grafted and the chosen method of cultivation.
If the Conference is grown on a forest pear rootstock, then they give it a sparse-tiered crown shape. Such a formation is well known and is not difficult for an experienced gardener. It is carried out in early spring within 4-5 years from the moment of planting.
Sparse tiered shaping is used for tall trees
When growing Conference pears on a quince rootstock, it is better to use a bowl-shaped formation. At the same time, good ventilation and illumination of the inner volume of the crown, as well as ease of care and harvesting, are achieved. Such formation is usually achieved in 4-5 years. It should be remembered that it provokes a strong thickening of the crown, which is already characteristic of the pear Conference.
For a pear Conference on a quince rootstock, the formation of a crown like a bowl is suitable
With such a formation, branches are left that are in the same plane. Usually 8 to 12 skeletal branches are laid. The lower ones have an angle of inclination in the range of 45-55 °, the upper ones - 60-80 °. All of them are attached to the trellis dragging, bending if necessary. During the formation period, the central conductor is cut annually so that it is 60-70 centimeters higher than the base of the upper branch. All superfluous and competing branches are cut “on the ring”. The overgrowing branches are left at intervals of 15-25 centimeters. They are not folded back or tied up, allowing free growth.
Forming the crown of a pear like a palmette, they leave branches located in the same plane
The Conference is especially relevant for low-growing pears, but it is also possible for tall ones. It is carried out annually in early spring by cutting out the shoots growing inside the crown and thickening it.
It is usually carried out in the summer during the period of active growth of young shoots by shortening them (chasing) by 5-10 centimeters. This encourages the growth of additional overgrowing branches, on which the next year's harvest is laid. In addition, the maintenance of high yields can be ensured by pruning for replacement shoots according to the type of grape formation. This method requires more experience and time consuming.
Maintaining high yields of pears can be ensured by pruning for a vine-like substitution shoot
This type of pruning is an important step in the prevention of various diseases. It is performed in late autumn after the sap flow has stopped by cutting dry, diseased, broken branches. Since pathogens can be found in such branches, they are burned after removal. Sanitary pruning, if necessary, is repeated in early spring, if frostbite or broken shoots have appeared during the winter.
Maximum productivity and the best taste can be achieved with proper cultivation and strict adherence to agricultural technology. It is especially important to pay attention to the trees immediately after planting, this will speed up the first harvests. Care activities include soil preparation and enrichment, watering, pruning.
If the tree was planted incorrectly, then the tree will not take root. Saplings planted in unsuitable soil or in the wrong place can hurt for a long time or even die. Choose a site for planting in advance.
It is recommended to place trees next to large buildings, this leads to deformation of the crown and a further decrease in yield. Read about transplanting pears to a new place in spring here.
It is customary to land the conference in the autumn. It is best to hold this event at the end of September; in the southern regions of the country, a shift in terms to the first ten days of October is permissible. It is important to have time to plant the plants before the first frost and stable snow cover. During the winter, the pear adapts to the permanent place of cultivation, and with the onset of spring it will easily switch to active vegetation with subsequent flowering. Find out what can be grafted on a pear at this link.
Planting a conference is not much different from planting other fruit trees:
At first, the plants are afraid of sunlight, they need to be shaded, otherwise the foliage will turn yellow and fall off.
The choice of planting material is not a difficult task. Only buy seedlings from local nurseries. It is best to take plants 1-1.5 years old. Make sure they have a well-developed root system. Different farms need different trees:
The distribution of plants over the territory depends on the variety:
Trees need care throughout their lives. Care consists of spring and autumn sanitary measures, regular fertilization. Trees need regular watering (5-6 buckets of water / tree, 1-2 times a week depending on the weather). It is also necessary to provide lanita from diseases and pests.
For pear varieties, the conference must:
During the ripening of fruits, it is important for trees:
The crop is harvested in late September - early October. The fruit has good lightness and transportability. For ripening of the harvested pears, the following conditions are necessary:
Rejuvenating pruning is performed from 10-12 years at intervals of 3-4 years. Rejuvenation is done like this:
For the first years of life, the tree needs forced pruning. First, the main skeletal branches are pruned, shortening them by 30 cm. Later, the crown is given the shape of a cone. The tapered crown should be throughout life. This will increase the productivity of the plant, as well as ensure uniform ripening of the fruit. Pruning is best done before winter sleep, so fruiting will begin on time.