Cutting is the most popular and affordable technique for propagating and growing grapes. Roots are easily formed on lignified and green shoots. Saplings can be bought, but sometimes there are problems with the grape variety. Moreover, the prices for them are too high. With the help of cuttings, grapes can be propagated independently and get excellent results. How to propagate grapes with cuttings harvested in the fall, read this article.
In what pluses of grape propagation by cuttings harvested in the fall:
Following simple rules guarantees almost 100% survival rate of cuttings. This method is especially common in the northern regions of the country.
This method is based on the ability of the vine to develop anew from just one shoot. With this method, the properties of the mother culture are fully preserved. A vine grown from a cut has its own root system, not one obtained by grafting.
On a note! The most important plus of the autumn planting of grapes by cuttings is that in the spring, young shoots begin to actively develop. This significantly reduces the time before the plant begins to bear fruit.
The simplest and most commonly used method for propagating vines is using lignified cuttings. Even inexperienced winegrowers can do it. Of course, you will have to work hard. First of all, get the planting material and get started.
Propagating grapes with lignified cuttings, harvested in the fall, is not the only way. Can also be propagated by green cuttings. For this purpose shoots are used as planting material, which can always be obtained during the pinching process or spring sanitary pruning of vine branches... Before collecting cuttings, stock up on a bucket of water for the cut shoots. Divide the shoots into cuttings and return them to the water.
The method attracts with its simplicity. There is no need to prepare jars and store cuttings in the cellar during the winter.
However you can get a seedling using a green cutting only in a greenhouse... Moreover, the greenhouse must be heated. It will take quite a long time to maintain a stable high temperature. In addition, constant humidity control is needed. Such conditions are suitable for mass cultivation of grapes. Nurseries have the necessary equipment with the help of which artificial fog is created in special greenhouses. To grow a seedling from a green cutting, you need to carry out the following steps:
The whole point of the technique of growing grapes from green cuttings is to maintain certain conditions, namely: humidity from 80% to 100% (if there is intense heat), ambient temperature from plus 25 to 30 degrees. After a month and a half, strong roots grow on the green handle. The height of the cutting increases to 30 cm. In this state, after the hardening procedure, it is ready for transplantation to the school.
School - a place in the nursery where seedlings grow with roots or after grafting.
Propagation of grapes by cuttings in the fall, begins during the pruning of the vines. Sometimes they start this process earlier, when the leaf plates already lose their bright green color. This indicates the imminent end of the growing season. The lignification of the shoots and their ripening is complete. Usually, the harvesting is not put off for the spring, since there is no certainty that the cuttings will survive the winter safely. In addition, the material harvested in the fall, as practice shows, is less susceptible to disease. The vine quickly takes root, builds up greenery and throws out arrows that will bear fruit.
Before sending the stalk for storage, it must be numbered. Not all vines are suitable for cutting quality cuttings. The upper part of the lash does not have time to fully ripen. The part closer to the roots is almost devoid of good buds. To understand whether the vine is ripe or not, it must be slightly bent. Ripe does not break and emits a slight crackle.
Cut the cuttings to lengths longer than required. Choose a site with 5-7 eyes. The optimum cutting diameter is 5 mm. The height of the shoot is important for cutting cuttings. It should grow up to 1.5 meters during the growing season.
The middle part of the vine is the highest quality material for cutting healthy and strong cuttings.
Proper storage of cuttings in the winter is the basis of the future harvest. Some growers have adapted to store cuttings prepared for propagation of grapes in the fall, in a home refrigerator. This is done as follows:
During storage, a foreign smell may occur. In this case, the fabric must be replaced.
It is much more convenient to keep planting material in storerooms or in cellars. The optimum temperature for storing cuttings is about +1 degrees. If you keep a higher temperature, then the cuttings begin their "vital activity". Along with the consumption of nutrients, the chances of good survival in the spring are significantly reduced.
Before the cuttings are sent for storage, disinfection in a solution of copper sulfate with a concentration of 1% is required. After that, the planting material is kept in clean water for a day. Then the cuttings are placed in plastic bags, leaving the top outside. In winter, the condition of the planting material is regularly checked. If mold is found, the cuttings are washed with water. You can just rub it gently. If the cuttings are too dry, they are placed in water for a short time and soaked.
Ten days before planting, cuttings are checked for germination. The secateurs are pressed on the cross section. The emerging water droplets indicate that the cutting has successfully overwintered. If moisture comes to the surface without squeezing the branch, the stalk has rotted. Drops do not appear when pressing on the branch - the stalk is dry.
To form the root system of cuttings in water, they are placed in glass jars with clean water. They should be immersed in water 3-5 cm. Provide a separate jar for each grape variety. Stick on the jars information about the grape variety, date of immersion in water. After a couple of weeks, the upper buds will begin to swell. This is the beginning of the growth of the shoot. The roots grow back for almost a month. During the entire period of observation of the cuttings, add clean water to the jars. It evaporates pretty quickly.
Planting ready-made seedlings in the ground begins in May. Grape shanks by this time should overgrow with leaves and release roots.
The landing instructions include the following steps:
In areas with a warm climate, lignified cuttings can be planted directly in the ground. And how to propagate grapes with cuttings harvested in the fall? Some growers do not postpone this planting procedure until spring, but immediately plant it on prepared ridges. The top is covered with non-woven material or spruce branches of conifers. Sometimes dry leaves are used as insulation. Make sure they are not damaged by insects. Fertile soil allows the plant to root easily. In spring, the stalk begins to grow actively. With this method of planting, only one bud is left on the surface of the earth. The rest, and there should be 3-4 of them, are buried in earth.
To retain moisture and heat in the soil, the cuttings are covered with polyethylene film.
With the onset of spring, after the snow melts, holes are made in the film so that young shoots can freely break through. When leaves appear on the cutting, the film must be removed and the cutting must be freed from excess soil. This method is not suitable for the central regions of the country. There is a high probability of freezing of planting material.
There is also a way to propagate grapes by cuttings in the fall. This is a landing in a school.
Cuttings harvested in the fall from annual shoots are planted in the first decade of November in a school. Cuttings should be healthy, without stepsons, with at least three buds. The mustache should also be plucked. Cuttings are planted at a distance of 15 cm from each other.
Cover the school with foil. This will keep the cuttings from freezing. In the spring, when the shoots begin to break through, and warm weather sets in, remove the plastic.
Spring planting is preferred. Start planting cuttings in March. By this time, the earth warms up to 10-13 degrees. Before planting grapes with cuttings harvested in the fall, preparatory work is required:
How to propagate grapes by cuttings in the fall? How to store and care for them properly? These questions are asked by many gardeners who want to decorate their garden with such a useful and beautiful plant.
In order for the propagation of grapes by cuttings harvested in autumn to be successful, experienced growers give the following tips:
Planting grapes in the fall is within the power of even novice winegrowers. You just need to take into account a number of nuances, and the plant will bear fruit in three years.
After getting acquainted with the information given in the article, you will understand how to propagate grapes by cuttings, save and root the harvested material. Try to follow the simple rules for planting grapes in the fall and the vine will certainly give you a rich harvest of tasty and healthy berries.
Reproduction of grapes by cuttings at home, as a rule, is carried out in the fall. The result is stable: a copy of the mother plant grows from the cuttings of a healthy grape bush. Reproduction by branches is done in spring and summer. This method allows you to start grapes along a given trajectory and increase the yield.
Methods for breeding grapes at home
Harvesting woody grape cuttings
Optimal storage conditions for grape cuttings
Preparing cuttings for planting in spring
Dates of planting cuttings in spring
Breeding grapes by layering
The process of growing grapes by seeds
Before propagating a fruit vine, you need to prepare cuttings. To begin with, the shanks are selected, which will be transplanted. Pay attention to color irregularities, rot and other signs of disease.
The strength of the shoots is also determined by bending - if there is no specific crackling, then the plant is considered unhealthy.Also, you can not use too thick branches for propagation.
Chubuki are harvested since autumn, until the air temperature drops below 0 degrees. The selected lashes are cut and cleaned of antennae. Further, they are shredded into elements 50-80 cm long.However, experienced gardeners argue that the efficiency of cuttings and the amount of waste depend on the length, so they recommend cutting the shoots into pieces up to a meter or more.
After cutting, the shanks are treated for preventive purposes against diseases. For this, the elements are kept for 24 hours in ordinary water, after which they are placed for half an hour in a weak solution of potassium permanganate (can be replaced with copper sulfate) and dried naturally.
When cutting vines for further storage, keep in mind the factor that in spring you will have to update the cuts, so the length of the shank will decrease slightly.
The cut cuttings will have to be stored until spring. The elements are collected in bunches, wrapped with plastic wrap (dense) and fixed with a soft rope (tape, staples). To eliminate condensation, it is recommended to make several holes in the polyethylene.
The main condition for long-term storage is a temperature regime from +2 to +6 degrees. If the temperature is below the indicated indicators, then the shanks will not be able to take root later, if it is higher, then biological processes are activated ahead of time, which is also undesirable.
Best storage locations:
For cuttings to quickly take root in the open field, preparation is necessary. Many gardeners use special stimulants for the growth of the root system, for example, Kornevin, Zircon, Silk, etc., but you can also act with the proven "old-fashioned" method:
To increase the chance of root germination, you can use the waxing method (optional). It is necessary to slightly melt the paraffin (the temperature should not be hot), dip the upper part of the cutting into it. This procedure does not allow the eyes to bloom ahead of time and the vine to dry out.
Breeding methods for grapes.
Propagation of grapes - an important stage in the life cycle vine... let's consider what are the ways of propagation of grapes and we will carefully analyze the features of each method.
Propagated grapes by seedlings, unrooted cuttings (shanks), elongated cuttings, layering... But the first way is preferable. Bushes grown from seedlings develop better, come into fruiting faster, are more resistant to drought and frost.
Cuttings can be purchased in nurseries or prepared from your own most productive bushes. To do this, during the autumn pruning of vines, the healthiest cuttings are selected and stored all winter in a basement or pit, sprinkled with wet sand. The best storage temperature is around 0 ° C. Cuttings must not be allowed to dry out.
At the lower ends, whitish nodules (callus) and tubercles-root rudiments are formed.
For quick rooting of cuttings and their normal development, special pre-planting processing is recommended. kielchevanie... In cuttings that have undergone this procedure, whitish nodules are formed at the lower ends (callus) and tubercles - root rudiments.
Kilchevay is carried out like this:
3-4 weeks before planting, the cuttings are dug up, sorted, cut from the bottom under the very knot and tied into bundles so that all the lower ends are at the same level.
Then the cuttings are soaked for 1-2 days in water and placed tightly in the pit, with the lower ends up. Wet sand is poured at the bottom of the pit, and the cuttings are covered with a layer of humus earth (8-10 cm) on top, then with fresh manure (25-30 cm), and then again with earth (about 5 cm). It is desirable that the manure layer occupy an area 1.5 times larger than the surface of the pit. At night and on cool days, the pit with the cuttings should be covered with glazed frames, mats or some kind of insulating material.
Kilchevanie grape cuttings.
When kilchevaya, you need to especially carefully monitor the temperature under the layer of manure, where the ends of the cuttings are located. If the temperature starts to rise above 28 ... 30 ° С, it is necessary to reduce the layer of manure and compact the remaining one. In the event that the temperature does not reach 13 ... 15 ° C, you need to water the manure with hot water or add fresh hot manure and insulate the pit well.
Usually at a temperature of 20 ... 25 ° C after 12-15 days, kilchevka ends.
As soon as the soil warms up well, they start planting the cuttings in the school. The best planting time is the last decade of April. Cuttings are planted in pre-prepared ditches, the soil of which is loosened to a depth of 60-70 cm.
The landing technique is:
The soil in the ditch is mixed with humus at the rate of 1 part of the earth to 2 parts of humus.
Planting unrooted grape cuttings.
Cuttings are installed along the ditch wall to a depth of 30-35 cm and 10-12 cm apart. The upper 1-2 eyes should be 10-12 cm above the soil surface.
Then the ditch is filled up to half, the ground near the cuttings is trampled down and watered at the rate of 2-3 buckets per 1 running meter. m.When the water is absorbed, the groove is covered to the top with earth, and the ends of the cuttings are covered with loose moist earth with a layer of 3 cm.
During the summer, the soil is loosened 4-5 times, weeded and watered 3-5 times.
In order for the plants to grow faster, they need to be fed before the first 2 waterings (in June and July) with diluted slurry or a solution of any nitrogen fertilizer (ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate at the rate of 15-20 g per 1 m 2 ). In early August, for better ripening of the shoots, phosphorus-potassium fertilizing is needed (superphosphate (20-30 g) and potassium salt (10-15 g) per 1 m 2 ).
In years with relatively cold and rainy summers, for better ripening of shoots, it is recommended pinching and chasing tops.
By the end of summer, the seedlings take root and are usually ready for planting in a permanent place.
In order to damage the roots of the seedlings as little as possible during digging and to facilitate the work, you need to dig a groove 45-50 cm deep from one side of the row at a distance of 15-20 cm from the plants.
Then, on the opposite side of the row, cut the plant with a bayonet shovel and roll it into the groove with a lump of earth.
Saplings are selected by hand, shake off the ground and tied in bundles according to varieties.
Seedlings intended for autumn planting are temporarily sprinkled with moist earth, and those that will be planted in spring are placed in the basement for winter storage.
If there is little planting material or it is obtained from very valuable varieties, seedlings can be grown from 1-2-eyed cuttings. They are best grown in crates or small greenhouses.
Shortened cuttings are a must prokilchevatb, and then plant in boxes with a layer of sand at the bottom of the box 8-10 cm, and above the upper ends of the cuttings - 12-14 cm.
After the frost has passed, the rooted plants, together with a lump of earth, trying not to disturb the root system, are planted in open ground.
When growing seedlings from shortened cuttings directly in the open field, cuttings are planted in well-processed ridges so that the upper eye is 2 cm below the soil surface.
The planted cuttings are first covered with earth, and then with a layer of sand or chopped straw. In the first days after planting, you need to water the cuttings after 1 or 2 days, after rooting - after 1-2 weeks, and at the end of the growing season - 2 times a month.
If the seedlings are left for the winter in the ridges, it is necessary to carefully cover them with soil with straw, reeds, etc. First, put a layer of straw 10 cm, then the earth - 10-15 cm, and on top of the manure - 3-5 cm.
Propagation of grapes by layering.
For the propagation of rare grape varieties, the Chinese layering method is used. It is very simple and produces many well-developed seedlings. For the Chinese layering, a vine is taken from the mother bush and laid, without plucking out the eyes, into a groove 15 cm deep, pinned with twigs and covered with 5-6 cm of loose fertile soil mixed with humus, and watered well. During the summer, the layers are watered 2 times a month, the soil is loosened and the shoots are sprayed.
As the shoots grow, the groove is filled up. By the fall, each node has a root system and well-developed shoots. In the second half of October, the layers are dug up, cut off from the mother bush, cut into pieces (one node in each) and used as planting material.
Even better results are obtained when the cuttings are not laid directly in the ground, but in baskets or boxes buried next to the mother bush. In this case, the entire root system of the seedlings is completely preserved, and they root out very quickly during transplantation.
Propagation of grapes by elongated cuttings.
There is also a way of planting vineyards with elongated cuttings., which should be widely used in garden viticulture. The advantage of this method is that a large supply of nutrients in elongated cuttings ensures their almost 100% survival rate. Developing plants usually always have a strong root system and grow very well.
For planting with elongated cuttings in the fall, vines up to 150 cm long are harvested, tied in bunches and stored in the basement. In the spring, just before planting, the vines are soaked for 6-12 hours in water and plucked out for better root formation (blind) eyes on the part of the vine that will be laid in the hole. Then the vine is given a ring-like appearance, for which it is wrapped around a log, hemp or bucket and tied in 2-3 places with a washcloth. A rolled-up and connected vine is placed on the bottom of the planting pit, and the upper end of the vine with two healthy eyes is brought up and tied to a pre-set stake so that the upper eye is at the level of the soil surface.
You can propagate grapes by cuttings in another way - with green cuttings. Cut them out 10-15 days before flowering or at the beginning. For green grape cuttings, cuttings and shoots obtained by breaking and pinching are used. Cut or broken green shoots are immediately placed in a bucket of water. Then they are cut into two-bud cuttings, leaving a pair of buds on each of them, and quickly placed in water.
For greater clarity, you can watch a video about the propagation of grapes with green cuttings.
The lower cut is made obliquely under the lower node, the upper one - above the node with a hemp 2-3 cm. The lower leaves are removed, the upper one is cut in half if it is very large. The cuts are planted in cups or boxes, after which they are placed in a greenhouse and darkened. Shading is removed gradually after the plants are clearly moving into growth.
In autumn, plants are stored in a cellar or taken home if they do not have ripe buds. In the spring, seedlings are transplanted for growing in a bucket or other container filled with soil mixture. Grape seedlings grown from cuttings are planted in the trench in the fall, at the beginning - mid-September.
Green cuttings of especially valuable varieties are grafted directly onto the shoots of winter-hardy mother grapes. To do this, you need to choose a place on the grapes and make a cut so that it falls into a bayonet to the cut of the cutting. The junction is tied with an elastic film, which can be removed after about a month.
Grapes are easy to grow from cuttings. The main thing is to properly prepare and save the cuttings. And then you will not have any problems with growing grapes from cuttings.
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