Every gardener knows that growing any plant from seed is a time-consuming task. But how pleasant it is to watch this process from the very beginning, when the sprouted sprouts turn into full-fledged seedlings. If you want to get a new potato variety, why not try to breed it from seed. There is a high probability of getting a new promising species, the tubers of which will have improved qualities. It will not be a pity to spend a lot of time on such an interesting lesson. Let's try to understand in more detail all the nuances of growing potatoes from seeds.
Many may think: why complicate your life, if ready-made seedlings or samples of elite tubers are sold everywhere and they can be routinely used, as was done before. What are the benefits of working with seed?
Growing potatoes from seeds means getting seedlings for it yourself. There are no fundamental differences from the germination of other plants, that is, you need to be patient, free up space on the windowsill, and prepare many plastic containers of different sizes for picking.
The time for starting work with seeds is usually chosen at the end of February and beginning of March. First of all, you need to prepare the ground. It must contain a large supply of nutrients and at the same time be breathable and lightweight. You can mix it yourself by taking a share of ordinary land and four shares of peat. It will not be superfluous to cultivate the land for seedlings with some drug that destroys pest spores, for example, trichodermine or phytosporin. This measure is very relevant for potato seedlings, as it is very sensitive to the pathogens of the "black leg". There is a way to avoid diseases before picking, you can grow seedlings in wet sawdust. Moreover, this way it strengthens its roots faster.
It is best to keep the seeds themselves between two wet layers of gauze, which are in a closed container to prevent water evaporation, before pecking. If the fabric is constantly moistened, and the container is periodically ventilated, the sprouts of the seeds will hatch within 5-7 days. Further, the opened seeds need to be evenly distributed over the surface of a little compacted and well-spilled soil and a centimeter layer of sand should be poured on top. A container with a closed lid should be placed in a warm, sunny place, abundantly moistened with a spray bottle and ventilated.
As soon as sprouts appear, their care must be very careful. It must be remembered that potato seedlings are one of the most capricious. It even surpasses tomato and eggplant sprouts in its exactingness. To prevent the stems from stretching too much, the illumination should be very good, it is even recommended to supplement the seedlings on rainy days. The root system of sprouts develops slowly, so the soil should be rich in nutrients, but at the same time, the soil should not be very compacted and waterlogged. It should be so loose as to allow the roots to breathe.
Thus, the growing seedlings should be watered very carefully, treated with "Epin", and fertilized monthly with complex mineral preparations. You can dive seedlings into separate containers to the depth of the first leaves 25 days after planting in the ground with a layer of sand. This period usually falls at the end of April, when the weather is already favorable, so the pots with seedlings can already be taken out to the balcony.
It is recommended to grow seedlings from seeds in a greenhouse or greenhouse for the first year, and plant them in open ground only the next year, but not everyone has a covered area. In this case, it is quite possible to do with spunbond arcs. In the month of May, after the establishment of stable warm weather, in the evening or on a rainy day, you can start by preparing holes for seedlings. They should be deep enough, sprinkled with ash and humus, well moistened. It is better to make the distance between adjacent holes at least 40 centimeters, with the expectation of getting a good harvest from large potatoes.
Capricious seedlings from seeds must be planted at right angles and as deep as possible: only its upper leaves will remain on the surface. Then a warming layer of last year's foliage or straw is also applied to it and placed under arcs with a covering material. Such a mini-greenhouse can be removed only in the middle of June, so as not to expose the seedlings to temperature extremes once again.
After removing the shelter in the summer, you can take care of the beds with potatoes in the usual way, spud or mulch, water. Plant feeding can be limited to two times: two weeks after planting in the ground, still under cover, and before flowering itself.
This method of growing potatoes from seeds is suitable for the southern regions, where full summer weather already occurs in mid-May. The stage of caring for potato sprouts on the windowsill can be bypassed by planting sprouted seeds directly into the harvested holes. They are made at the same distance from each other, as for seedlings, a couple of hatched seeds are placed there and sprinkled with sand or coconut substrate with a layer of half a centimeter. The soil in the pits will need to be added depending on how the seedlings will grow. Otherwise, caring for them will be common in this culture. The seedless method usually does not give large yields, but the dug up tubers will be an excellent planting material for the next season of summer cottages.
How to grow potatoes from seeds. Garden World site
Many consider the vegetative method of growing potatoes to be the only one and from year to year they plant tubers in the ground in the old fashioned way, and in the fall they complain about the poor harvest.
This method, despite its availability and simplicity, is often the cause of the degeneration of the variety. Long-term cultivation of potatoes in one place leads to a constant accumulation of infections and bacteria, which significantly reduces the yield.
Not every gardener renews planting material every five years, as professionals recommend. When purchasing varietal potatoes on the market, from friends or from a specialized company, you have no guarantees that the vaunted specimens will end up being of perfect quality or will not be infected with any serious disease.
Growing potatoes from seeds eliminates all of the above nuances, you get the opportunity to harvest a decent harvest, several times larger than when planting in the traditional way.
Although this process is considered to be quite time consuming, it is much cheaper than buying seed tubers. It is quite possible to get good potatoes from seeds if you follow some simple rules and do everything in stages:
- Seed selection. It is advisable to purchase several types of seeds with different ripening periods, giving preference to varieties adapted to the climatic conditions of your region.
- Soaking the seeds in water for up to three days. Periodically, every twelve hours, containers with seeds are placed in the refrigerator and left for the same time. This procedure is called hardening.
- Planting seeds in wooden boxes or special separate containers - to a depth of one and a half to two centimeters. It is advisable to use fertile purchased soil or prepare it yourself from earth, peat, sand, humus.
- Seedlings are highly susceptible to a dangerous disease - black leg. Therefore, to combat it, you should use special biological products (for example, black yeast). You can also immediately buy soil that already contains such preparations.
- Cover the boxes with a breathable film, after the emergence of seedlings, the seedlings should be fed. Moisten the soil as needed.
- You can start planting seedlings at the age of 40 days directly in open ground from mid-May, covering it with a film at night. The distance between the rows is usual - from 50 centimeters. Saplings obtained from seeds have an underdeveloped root system, with a lack of natural moisture, they must be watered.
- Hilling of potatoes is carried out twice - 10 days after planting and during the period of tuber formation (when buds appear).
Potatoes of the first harvest from the so-called true seeds are healthy, are not affected by pests, are well preserved until spring, and have excellent taste. Therefore, it is better to leave it as seed material for breeding a new elite variety. Up to 150 minitubers can be grown from one bush.
The main advantages of obtaining potatoes from seeds:
- Does not require the costs associated with transportation and storage.
- Seeds in bags are much cheaper than planting tubers.
- The yield is many times higher. From one bush get from 500 grams of fresh potatoes.
- They have excellent immunity to many diseases. The seeds do not contain pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
- Resistance to adverse weather conditions.
- Potatoes adapt and survive in regions with different climates.
In order to avoid the unwanted mistakes and side effects of growing potatoes from seed, it is important to keep in mind the weaknesses of this method. The first shoots of potato seedlings are fragile and sensitive to temperature extremes, so you should be very careful when loosening, watering and replanting.
In seedlings, the root system is slowly forming, in this regard, it is recommended to initially plant the seeds in the ground with the addition of sawdust, regularly moisten the soil, and provide good lighting.
When growing potato seedlings, you have to carefully process it with biological products. Otherwise, the seedlings will not be able to grow stronger on their own and acquire immunity to diseases.
You can, of course, buy potato seeds from specialty stores. But you can also collect it yourself from your potatoes growing in the beds. Flowers bloom on the vegetative mass, after their flowering, small balls appear, similar to small green tomatoes, in which the seeds ripen.
When the potato tops begin to turn yellow and dry, these small fruits need to be harvested, but the seeds in them are not yet fully ripe. Therefore, these balls are placed for ripening on the windowsill (or in any other warm place) until they become soft - this means that the seeds are ripe and can be removed from the fruit.
The cultivation of potatoes as an edible crop did not begin immediately. When the Europeans got acquainted with this plant, they did not immediately begin to use it for food. At first, the potato was a decorative flower and adorned the outfits of fashionistas, and its seeds were used exclusively by gardeners.
Then people tried to eat berries, that is, potato seeds with a very deplorable result, since they are highly poisonous. During the time of Peter I, who brought potatoes to Russia, the so-called "potato" riots broke out due to seed poisoning, because people thought that the authorities had decided to poison them with a new plant. And only much later, potatoes in Russia were called the second bread.
We will not eat seeds either. But after all, everything goes into business with a zealous owner, doesn't it?
There is also a use for potato berries. From them we get strong, good varietal seedlings.
All gardeners sooner or later face such a problem as the degeneration of varieties. From year to year there is a deterioration in the quality of the grown potatoes. Undesirable changes and diseases accumulate. The variety that you really liked ceases to be itself.
How to be? How to restore the beneficial properties of your favorite potato variety? This is where potato berries come to the rescue. The seeds from these berries will help us, because they are less susceptible to negative changes and diseases than the tubers of the plant and are quite capable of restoring the original variety of your potatoes at no special cost.
Potato seeds in the middle lane do not have time to ripen, so they, like the fruits of tomatoes
must be ripened in a warm place. When the potato berries are ripe, they will soften and smell good.
Having discovered these changes, the seeds are removed, washed and dried. Everything is the same as with ordinary tomatoes, which is not surprising, because both potatoes and tomatoes belong to the same plant family - nightshades. Store seeds in a dry place.
Planting and caring for potato seedlings is no different from caring for tomato seedlings. With the only exception that tomatoes in the middle lane are usually planted in greenhouses, and potato seedlings in open ground. Seedlings are planted when all spring frosts have passed. Each plant in its own hole.
Important advice! Try to choose cloudy weather for the moment of planting, then the plants will take root better. If the weather is dry, pour the hole well with water, add a handful of ash there and plant directly into this slurry. And water well again. Sprinkle with dry earth on top to help the moisture evaporate less. And it is better to plant seedlings in the evening, so that it acclimatizes a little overnight.
Plant care is usual: watering, loosening, feeding, removing weeds. It is very important to huddle the plants. So they form additional roots and completely adult roots are formed on the plant.You can already leave them for further cultivation with tubers.
In this simple way, you will provide yourself with excellent varietal potatoes. Many gardeners, growing potatoes from seed with seedlings, significantly reduce the cost of purchasing elite varieties in tubers. Try it yourself. I wish you a big and healthy harvest!
It doesn't matter if you bought seeds or made it yourself, the technology for growing potatoes with seedlings is the same.
Sowing seeds is carried out in late March - early April. Since the root system of potato seedlings is weak and unstable, the soil for growing must certainly be loose and airy. For this purpose, vermiculite is added to the purchased soil for vegetables. We dilute the soil from the garden with peat and humus. Pour the earth into small containers, spray it with water from a spray bottle, tamp the surface with an ordinary tablespoon.
Potato seeds are very small, so it is better to sprinkle them on a small sheet of paper folded in half. And then carefully scatter them from paper over the entire surface of the earth. Once again we spray the sown seeds with water, cover the container with a lid and put it in a warm place.
In the future, we open the lid and air the seedlings, this is done several times a day. Watch when the first senses appear.
As soon as the seeds hatch, the lid is removed from the container, and the container is placed in a warm place in the light. And after about a week, when the seeded grows up a little, the first pick is carried out in separate containers. At the same time, remember that it is not necessary to transplant seedlings into large containers right away, since the soil that has not been mastered by the roots quickly turns sour.
Prepare the seedling container with good drainage holes. With the help of a small spatula, very carefully, with a small lump of earth, the seedlings are transferred to a new place. If the senses are slightly elongated, they are slightly buried in the soil. Do not press the stalk in any way: it is very delicate and it is easily injured.
Seedling care is reduced to uniform good lighting, moderate watering and optimal growing temperature. Such withdrawal must be continued throughout the initial period.
Potato seedlings are highly susceptible to blackleg disease. Therefore, it is watered in such a way that the stem and the plant itself remain dry. It is best to water the seedlings with a small syringe without a needle, pouring water over the edge of the cell.
When the seedlings grow up and get stronger, then they need to be transplanted (transferred along with a lump of earth) in baboutlarger capacity.
When the air temperature becomes sufficiently warm and stable, around mid-late May, potato seedlings are planted in open ground.
Caring for potatoes is the same as for ordinary ones: weeding, hilling, watering. But there is such a moment: not allowing the insemination of weeds, they are weeded and weeds are left in the aisles. They then act as mulch, and the soil under them will
How to grow potatoes from seedsto get a great harvest, let's figure it out together. But first, let's answer the frequently asked question: "Why sow potatoes with seeds, because it is easy to plant them with tubers?"
1. The fact is that when potatoes are planted with tubers, diseases accumulate in them from year to year, since most pathogens are transmitted through the soil. Also, potatoes are affected by viral diseases that cannot be cured. Naturally, the harvest begins to decline, despite good care from you.
2. Every 5-7 years, potatoes should be renewed. How do we do it? We go to the market (to the store) and buy tubers of a different kind. But this is just another variety, the tubers of which also carry diseases.
3. You should know that disease-free tubers can be bought in a store or nursery. These tubers are called super elite, but they are quite expensive.
Therefore, a fundamentally different approach is needed - planting potatoes with seeds. Now let's figure out how to grow potatoes from seeds.
1. Before sowing, it is advisable to disinfect the seeds and soil with a solution of a fungicide (for example, phytosporin).
2. Potato seeds are very small, they are sown on the surface of well-moistened soil. From above, they only slightly dust it with earth or calcined sand.
3. The container with crops is covered with glass (film) and placed in a warm place.
4. Check crops daily to ensure that the first shoots are not missed. As soon as they appeared, immediately into the light! If this is not done, the seedlings will instantly stretch out and it will be very difficult to leave them. When sowing in February-March, SUPER LIGHTING is MANDATORY.