Raspberries are susceptible to many diseases, including those of viral origin. In cases where the signs of the disease are subtle, propagation of raspberries using different parts of the infected plants will lead to the spread of the disease. If you decide to plant a new variety in your country house, it is better to buy a seedling grown in a special nursery. By purchasing planting material from other summer residents, you run the risk of not only getting an infected plant, but also ruining those bushes that are already growing with you. If you decide to propagate raspberries on your own, carefully read our recommendations in this article.
There are many ways to propagate raspberries: by seeds, cuttings, layering, dividing a bush ... You can use several methods and choose which one suits you best. To plant a large area with raspberries, one bush is enough. A plant that has been growing for 2-3 years is suitable for reproduction.
Any part of the plant can be used as planting material.
The hardest part is growing raspberries from seeds. This method is used by breeders to obtain new varieties.
This is done as follows:
The method of propagation of raspberries by seeds is the most time consuming
The first harvest of raspberries grown in this way, you will receive in 2-3 years.
Reproduction by cuttings is the most popular method among gardeners and summer residents. It is simple and allows you to get strong plants with a developed root system. There are several ways of propagation by cuttings.
Such plants begin to bear fruit in the second year.
Cuttings for propagation are harvested at the beginning of summer from raspberry bushes 2-3 years old
On a young raspberry bush, the harvest will appear in the second year.
In the spring, when transplanting to another site, the roots of the bushes are shortened. This is done in order for the plant to take root well in a new place. Pruning stimulates lateral root growth, resulting in a powerful rhizome.
To make raspberry roots more branched, they are shortened before transplanting.
Cut off roots more than 2 mm thick and 10-15 cm long with several lateral branches are suitable for propagation.
You can plant root cuttings directly into the ground at your summer cottage. Expect germination 2-3 weeks later.
Young raspberry bushes will start producing crops in 2-3 years.
In the fall, the tops of some of the long, slender stems tilt to the ground and take root. Such shoots in the spring are separated with a pruner from the main plant and transplanted together with a lump of earth.
To get the apical cut, proceed as follows:
After 2 years, the bush will begin to bear fruit.
Reproduction of raspberries by horizontal layers:
New plants begin to bear fruit in the second year.
Raspberries reproduce very well by root suckers. Young shoots grow from the roots of the mother bush, which by the end of the growing season have their own root system.
In autumn, the young plant is separated from the main bush.
The transplanted plants yield a harvest in the second year.
This method is recognized as one of the most effective and allows you to get a large number of seedlings.
You will harvest the first harvest from new bushes of raspberries in 2 years.
Raspberries begin to grow immediately after the snow melts. Therefore, already in March, you can plant it by dividing the bush into several parts.
The next year, the planted raspberries will begin to harvest.
Raspberries reproduce well by any part of the plant: roots, shoots, layering. If you have few bushes, then propagation by root cuttings or the Scottish method will allow you to plant a large area in 2 years. When transplanting raspberries to a new place, it is more convenient to use the method of dividing the bush. In order for raspberries to bring a large number of large and tasty berries, it is recommended to transplant the bushes to another area every 5-7 years.
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Regardless of the method of reproduction of raspberries, it is necessary to comply with a number of requirements to ensure the receipt of high-quality planting material.
Raspberry breeding rules:
Raspberries are a perennial shrub whose shoots are capable of bearing fruit for no more than two years, then the stems die off, buds form in the first year, and fruiting branches in the second.
This method of propagation can be used in spring, when the green root suckers of raspberries are 10-20 cm high. To do this, you need to step back from the center of the raspberry bush about 40 cm and dig it out. It is necessary to select the best offspring with a clod of earth.
You should not take those plants for reproduction that have a sluggish top - most likely, the bush was attacked by a raspberry fly.
Selected offspring must be planted in a garden bed (for growing), and used for planting in the fall.
Raspberry propagation is carried out in different ways - by root suckers, rooted cuttings or green cuttings in a greenhouse (with artificial fog). By dividing the bush, raspberries are rarely propagated, only when transplanting a bush. Only the best varieties should be propagated. Propagated by seeds only when new varieties are developed.
Bushes no older than 4-5 years should be used as mother plants. You can not harvest offspring from sick and growing near bushes. Bushes affected by mosaic and curliness are discarded and burned.
However, it is better not to harvest root suckers on fruit-bearing plantations, as this can contribute to the spread of viral and fungal diseases, as well as the ingress of non-varietal seedlings (formed from the germination of seeds of fallen berries). Therefore, it is advisable to buy raspberry seedlings in a certified nursery.
Propagation by root suckers, growing in large numbers around the bush, is the easiest way.
Each raspberry bush gives root suckers in a row and aisles. Some of them in a row are left to replace the fruiting shoots of the bush. The rest can be used for its reproduction or they are cut off.
When excavating root suckers, the shoots are cut so that their length (from the root) is 25-35 cm. The most developed annual shoots are taken with a base thickness of at least 8-10 mm, with a root system of 15-20 cm. Long roots are cut.
Root shoots, as they appear, are transplanted into the school for growing. The school must have fertile soil. By the end of the growing season, the seedlings develop a fairly strong root system. Transplanting seedlings to a permanent place is carried out in autumn or spring. In the Non-Black Earth Belt, autumn plantings are better.
Green offspring are harvested in the summer at the stage when they are 5-10 cm high. They are transplanted with a clod of earth in wet and cool weather. After planting, watered and mulched.
Raspberries can be propagated by root cuttings obtained by digging in spring and autumn or harvested for storage.
Roots of any diameter (not less than 2 mm) are suitable for cuttings, but the best cuttings are 2-4 mm in diameter. It is better to have kidneys on them that have already formed.
Lateral branches on the roots increase the survival rate of cuttings, so they try not to disturb them. The length of the cuttings is from 2 to 15 cm, but preferably 8-12 cm.
Storage of cuttings.
The cut cuttings are sorted by diameter and tied into bundles, which are placed in boxes, sprinkled with moist soil, labels are made, covered with foil on top and stored in a basement or in a snow pile.
They constantly make sure that they do not dry out. Do not immerse the roots in water for a long time. Drying of the roots can be avoided by keeping them under a layer of damp sawdust. The temperature during storage is maintained no higher than 5 ° C.
If the cuttings are planted in the fall, then storage is not required.
Root cuttings are planted in a hole 6-8 cm deep, covered with compost soil, watered and mulched.
Or the cuttings are placed in a continuous row in the furrows to a depth of 6-8 cm, covered with earth with a layer of 4-5 cm and mulched with peat.
Over the next summer, the soil with the planting of root cuttings is watered as needed and kept loose. If raspberry offspring grow weak in one season, they are cut low. The next year, in the fall, the offspring that have grown from the cuttings are dug up and used for planting raspberries.
The output of raspberry seedlings when propagated by root cuttings is about 60-70% of the number of planted cuttings.
In early spring or autumn, a young raspberry bush with several shoots is dug up and divided into parts. Each part of a raspberry bush with a shoot is planted in a new place.
It is absolutely necessary. After 4-5 years, maximum 10 years, the growth of the bush in one place, when the raspberry tree begins to bear fruit worse, or the shoots grow, the raspberry tree must be renewed. This can be done in a number of ways.
First way (best). In a new place for the raspberry the planting material obtained by one of the above-described propagation methods is planted. And even better - they planted there virus-free seedlings purchased in the nursery.
Second way. In an old raspberry bush with a shovel, cut out and remove the central part with the old rhizome. From the remaining roots and offspring, powerful shoots develop quickly, and the yield increases, and the quality of the berries increases.
Updating raspberries should be done regularly. to maintain the yield and quality of berries at a high level. Raspberries should not be allowed to grow in one place for more than 5-10 years, since raspberries suck out the nutrients necessary for their growth from the soil.
Transplanting raspberries is practically no different from planting them. It is recommended to prepare the soil in advance, preferably 3-4 years in advance.
To do this, organic fertilizers are applied on the selected site in the 1st year in the fall, the soil is dug to a depth of 20 cm.In the 2nd year, legumes are planted on this site, which are ground and dug up with the soil during flowering - this will give green fertilizer.
In the next one to two years, pumpkin seeds, carrots, and beets are grown on the site. In the year of the autumn transplant, early harvested vegetables (dill or salad) are sown on the site, since the best time for an autumn transplant is August or early September (since a later date is dangerous by freezing).
After harvesting vegetables, the soil is dug up or loosened.
More transplanting raspberries in spring favorably... The harvest is then obtained in the fall, and it will be higher than with the autumn transplantation of raspberries.
It is better if the seedlings are well developed, have fibrous roots at least 15 cm long (cut off very long), and, which is very important, without signs of disease.
The bottom of the hole is covered with a prepared mixture of compost with soil or a mixture of fine sawdust and manure. The roots are squeezed with the same mixture. After transplantation, the tops of the processes are cut off. The soil is lightly compacted, watered and mulched, then kept moist, without weeds.
The growth of raspberry roots occurs in the first 3-5 years, then it weakens, which must be taken into account when organizing its reproduction.