How to propagate raspberries: by seeds, cuttings, layering, dividing the bush

Raspberries are susceptible to many diseases, including those of viral origin. In cases where the signs of the disease are subtle, propagation of raspberries using different parts of the infected plants will lead to the spread of the disease. If you decide to plant a new variety in your country house, it is better to buy a seedling grown in a special nursery. By purchasing planting material from other summer residents, you run the risk of not only getting an infected plant, but also ruining those bushes that are already growing with you. If you decide to propagate raspberries on your own, carefully read our recommendations in this article.

How raspberries reproduce

There are many ways to propagate raspberries: by seeds, cuttings, layering, dividing a bush ... You can use several methods and choose which one suits you best. To plant a large area with raspberries, one bush is enough. A plant that has been growing for 2-3 years is suitable for reproduction.

Any part of the plant can be used as planting material.

Propagation of raspberries by seeds

The hardest part is growing raspberries from seeds. This method is used by breeders to obtain new varieties.

This is done as follows:

  1. Collect the most ripe large berries from well-fruiting bushes and carefully crush them with your fingers at the bottom of the saucepan. The resulting mass is washed several times in water. Seeds suitable for propagation will be at the bottom. The water with the pulp is drained, and the sediment is filtered through a sieve.
  2. In order for the seeds to sprout well, you need to prepare them. The seeds are left in a glass of water for a day. After that, they are mixed with wet sand and laid out in fabric bags, which are stored for 3 months in the refrigerator or in the basement in boxes filled with moistened moss. The moss is sprayed with water every 2 weeks.
  3. In March, the seeds are sown together with sand in boxes with soil to a depth of 5 mm. Sprinkle them with sand on top. To create a greenhouse effect, the crops are covered with glass. The boxes should be located in a room with a temperature of 20–22 ° С. The earth is moistened 2-3 times a week. Do not let the boxes stand in the sun, this can lead to overheating of crops. As a rule, only half of the seeds emerge.
  4. When several true leaves appear on the seedlings, they begin to harden. This is done so that the plants get used to temperature extremes and direct sunlight. Unseasoned seedlings are likely to die. In warm weather, boxes with raspberry seedlings are put outside. For the first time, it is enough to hold them in the fresh air for 1 hour. Further, the time the seedlings stay on the street is daily increased by 1 hour. After a week, the boxes are exposed for the whole day.
  5. Hardened seedlings are planted in open ground when warm weather sets in (usually in mid-May). This should be done in the morning. They dig holes 10-15 cm deep, place the seedlings there together with a lump of earth, and sprinkle it on top with soil so that the roots are completely in the ground. The seedlings are well watered and covered with foil overnight for a month. After 2-3 weeks, it will be noticeable that the raspberry bushes have begun to grow (new leaves will appear).

The method of propagation of raspberries by seeds is the most time consuming

The first harvest of raspberries grown in this way, you will receive in 2-3 years.

Video: reproduction of raspberries by seeds

Propagation of raspberries by cuttings

Reproduction by cuttings is the most popular method among gardeners and summer residents. It is simple and allows you to get strong plants with a developed root system. There are several ways of propagation by cuttings.

Propagation by woody cuttings

  1. In the fall, after the leaves have fallen, cut off the raspberry shoots with a secateurs. Divide the stiff stems into cuttings 25–30 cm long.
  2. Store the prepared material in wet sand in the cellar, after wrapping the cuttings in paper and cloth.
  3. In February, the lower cut is renewed and soaked in water for 12 hours. To start growing the roots, the cuttings are placed in water with honey. Dissolve 1 tsp in 1 liter of cold or warm water. honey. The root formation process will be noticeable in a month.
  4. When the roots grow to 1 cm, transplant the cuttings into plastic bottles filled with earth. Make deep, wide pits, carefully place the raspberry stems there and cover with sand. Moisten the soil regularly. Please note that cuttings can rot if over-watered.
  5. After 3 weeks, the roots will form, and the leaves will already appear on the stems.
  6. In May, rooted cuttings are planted in pits to a depth of 20-25 cm.

Such plants begin to bear fruit in the second year.

Propagation by green cuttings

  1. Cuttings are harvested in early summer from raspberry bushes, which have been growing for 2-3 years. Separate the green shoots at ground level and divide them into pieces 7-10 cm long.
  2. Immerse the prepared material for 12 hours in the root growth stimulator Kornevin: dilute 1 hour of powder in 1 liter of water. Use only freshly prepared solution.
  3. Plant the cuttings in loose soil. The distance between the plants should be 10-15 cm. Cover the bed with foil.
  4. Seedlings require regular watering.
  5. Feed the cuttings 2 weeks after planting. Use mullein as an organic fertilizer. To do this, dilute a liter can of slurry in 10 liters of water. This amount of fertilizer is enough for watering 2 m2 land with seedlings.
  6. Transplant young plants to the place of constant growth in 1.5–2 months. To transplant a seedling, dig it up along with a clod of earth.

Cuttings for propagation are harvested at the beginning of summer from raspberry bushes 2-3 years old

On a young raspberry bush, the harvest will appear in the second year.

Video: reproduction of raspberries with green cuttings

Propagation by root cuttings

In the spring, when transplanting to another site, the roots of the bushes are shortened. This is done in order for the plant to take root well in a new place. Pruning stimulates lateral root growth, resulting in a powerful rhizome.

To make raspberry roots more branched, they are shortened before transplanting.

Cut off roots more than 2 mm thick and 10-15 cm long with several lateral branches are suitable for propagation.

  1. Take peat and sand in equal proportions, mix and fill boxes with the mixture, the depth of which should be at least 20 cm.
  2. Make grooves up to 5 cm deep.
  3. Put the selected root cuttings on the bottom and carefully cover with soil. Place the boxes in the greenhouse or cover with foil.
  4. Plant young plants in late May when the weather is warm.

You can plant root cuttings directly into the ground at your summer cottage. Expect germination 2-3 weeks later.

  1. Make grooves 5 cm deep, place the cuttings on the bottom and water liberally.
  2. Cover the bed with plastic to retain heat and moisture.
  3. When the plants grow up, remove the film.

Young raspberry bushes will start producing crops in 2-3 years.

Video: reproduction of raspberries by root cuttings

Reproduction of raspberries by layering

In the fall, the tops of some of the long, slender stems tilt to the ground and take root. Such shoots in the spring are separated with a pruner from the main plant and transplanted together with a lump of earth.

To get the apical cut, proceed as follows:

  1. In May, choose a flexible thin shoot and pinch its top so that lateral roots develop.
  2. The plot of land intended for the formation of the layering is loosened. The top layer of soil up to 15 cm deep is mixed with peat and sand. To do this, 1 m2 land take 1 bucket of peat and sand.
  3. Make a furrow 10 cm deep and tilt the stem so that the upper part of the shoot (10-15 cm from the top) touches the ground.
  4. The top is secured with a wire clip to the bottom of the groove.
  5. The hole is covered with soil and watered.
  6. In September, the stem of the mother plant is separated with pruning shears at a distance of 30 cm from the young plant.
  7. After the leaves fall off, the remaining part of the mother shoot is cut off.
  8. Cut off the tops of the cuttings to stimulate the growth of lateral shoots.
  9. The cuttings are dug out with a clod of earth and transplanted to a permanent place.

After 2 years, the bush will begin to bear fruit.

Reproduction of raspberries by horizontal layers:

  1. In May, furrows are dug to the sides of the main bush. The depth of the groove should be 10 cm. Sand is poured at the bottom.
  2. Green stems are placed on the bottom of the grooves and fixed with metal brackets.
  3. The lower and side branches are cut with a secateurs.
  4. Sprinkle the shoots with earth on top. The tops of the layers are cut off so that the lateral buds develop.
  5. For better formation of the root system, the layers are watered with Kornevin's solution. For this, 5 g of powder is diluted in 5 liters of water. Repeated watering with a growth stimulator is carried out after 3 weeks. By autumn, roots are formed in places of contact with the ground.
  6. In autumn, the new plant is separated from the main one and planted together with a lump of soil.

New plants begin to bear fruit in the second year.

Video: reproduction of raspberries by horizontal layers

Reproduction by root suckers

Raspberries reproduce very well by root suckers. Young shoots grow from the roots of the mother bush, which by the end of the growing season have their own root system.

  1. In autumn, use a shovel to separate the young plant from the main bush.
  2. Dig up with a clod of earth, being careful not to damage the roots.
  3. Dig a hole deep enough to hold the clod and plant.
  4. Fill the pit with soil, compact the earth and water well.

In autumn, the young plant is separated from the main bush.

The transplanted plants yield a harvest in the second year.

Video: reproduction of raspberries by root suckers

Scottish breeding method for raspberries

This method is recognized as one of the most effective and allows you to get a large number of seedlings.

  1. In spring, peat, humus, sawdust (1 m2 soil - 1 bucket of a mixture of peat, sand and sawdust, taken in equal proportions). This leads to the formation of a large number of buds on the rhizomes of raspberry bushes.
  2. In the fall, the roots are divided into cuttings and placed in the basement until spring. They are folded in bunches, wrapped in cloth and stored in wet sand.
  3. In March, cuttings are buried in a mixture of peat and sand in equal proportions and watered abundantly. Already after 2 weeks, a large number of green shoots appear.
  4. The sprouts, along with a part of the rhizome, are planted in boxes.
  5. New plants take root very quickly. After a week, the seedlings are transplanted into pots. To do this, you need to prepare the soil in the following proportions: 3 parts of turf, 1 part of peat and sand. Superphosphate and dolomite flour are added at the rate of 5 g and 50 g, respectively, per 100 l of soil.
  6. After a month, the seedlings are ready for planting in open ground.

You will harvest the first harvest from new bushes of raspberries in 2 years.

Reproduction of raspberries by dividing the bush

Raspberries begin to grow immediately after the snow melts. Therefore, already in March, you can plant it by dividing the bush into several parts.

  1. The stems are shortened to 20 cm in order to stimulate the growth of lateral shoots.
  2. Dig up the bush along with the roots. The earth is carefully shaken off.
  3. Divide the bush with a pruner so that in each separated part there are 2-3 large stems.
  4. Dig holes 30–40 cm deep. The soil is mixed with peat and sand in the ratio of 3 parts of earth, 1 part of peat, 1 part of sand.
  5. Plants are placed in pits, covered with the prepared mixture and watered abundantly.

The next year, the planted raspberries will begin to harvest.

Raspberries reproduce well by any part of the plant: roots, shoots, layering. If you have few bushes, then propagation by root cuttings or the Scottish method will allow you to plant a large area in 2 years. When transplanting raspberries to a new place, it is more convenient to use the method of dividing the bush. In order for raspberries to bring a large number of large and tasty berries, it is recommended to transplant the bushes to another area every 5-7 years.

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Regardless of the method of reproduction of raspberries, it is necessary to comply with a number of requirements to ensure the receipt of high-quality planting material.

Raspberry breeding rules:

  • To obtain planting material use only healthy shrubs. Weakened, shorter, sick, ignore. Choose plants with:
    • abundant fruiting
    • strong stems
    • healthy, bright green foliage.
  • Malinnikov direct sunlight is contraindicated... Plant young raspberries in areas:
    • with diffused lighting
    • not prone to flooding during precipitation and melting snow
    • on slightly acidic, loose and fertile soils.
  • Plants are undemanding to moisture, but when planting young seedlings watering is required.

Raspberries are a perennial shrub whose shoots are capable of bearing fruit for no more than two years, then the stems die off, buds form in the first year, and fruiting branches in the second.

2. Reproduction of raspberries by green root suckers

This method of propagation can be used in spring, when the green root suckers of raspberries are 10-20 cm high. To do this, you need to step back from the center of the raspberry bush about 40 cm and dig it out. It is necessary to select the best offspring with a clod of earth.

You should not take those plants for reproduction that have a sluggish top - most likely, the bush was attacked by a raspberry fly.

Selected offspring must be planted in a garden bed (for growing), and used for planting in the fall.

Reproduction methods, renewal and transplantation of raspberries

Raspberry propagation is carried out in different ways - by root suckers, rooted cuttings or green cuttings in a greenhouse (with artificial fog). By dividing the bush, raspberries are rarely propagated, only when transplanting a bush. Only the best varieties should be propagated. Propagated by seeds only when new varieties are developed.

Bushes no older than 4-5 years should be used as mother plants. You can not harvest offspring from sick and growing near bushes. Bushes affected by mosaic and curliness are discarded and burned.

However, it is better not to harvest root suckers on fruit-bearing plantations, as this can contribute to the spread of viral and fungal diseases, as well as the ingress of non-varietal seedlings (formed from the germination of seeds of fallen berries). Therefore, it is advisable to buy raspberry seedlings in a certified nursery.

Reproduction of raspberries by root suckers. Nursery school

Propagation by root suckers, growing in large numbers around the bush, is the easiest way.

Each raspberry bush gives root suckers in a row and aisles. Some of them in a row are left to replace the fruiting shoots of the bush. The rest can be used for its reproduction or they are cut off.

When excavating root suckers, the shoots are cut so that their length (from the root) is 25-35 cm. The most developed annual shoots are taken with a base thickness of at least 8-10 mm, with a root system of 15-20 cm. Long roots are cut.

Root shoots, as they appear, are transplanted into the school for growing. The school must have fertile soil. By the end of the growing season, the seedlings develop a fairly strong root system. Transplanting seedlings to a permanent place is carried out in autumn or spring. In the Non-Black Earth Belt, autumn plantings are better.

Reproduction of raspberries by green root suckers

Green offspring are harvested in the summer at the stage when they are 5-10 cm high. They are transplanted with a clod of earth in wet and cool weather. After planting, watered and mulched.

Propagation of raspberries by root cuttings

Raspberries can be propagated by root cuttings obtained by digging in spring and autumn or harvested for storage.

Roots of any diameter (not less than 2 mm) are suitable for cuttings, but the best cuttings are 2-4 mm in diameter. It is better to have kidneys on them that have already formed.

Lateral branches on the roots increase the survival rate of cuttings, so they try not to disturb them. The length of the cuttings is from 2 to 15 cm, but preferably 8-12 cm.

Storage of cuttings.

The cut cuttings are sorted by diameter and tied into bundles, which are placed in boxes, sprinkled with moist soil, labels are made, covered with foil on top and stored in a basement or in a snow pile.

They constantly make sure that they do not dry out. Do not immerse the roots in water for a long time. Drying of the roots can be avoided by keeping them under a layer of damp sawdust. The temperature during storage is maintained no higher than 5 ° C.

If the cuttings are planted in the fall, then storage is not required.

Root cuttings are planted in a hole 6-8 cm deep, covered with compost soil, watered and mulched.

Or the cuttings are placed in a continuous row in the furrows to a depth of 6-8 cm, covered with earth with a layer of 4-5 cm and mulched with peat.

Over the next summer, the soil with the planting of root cuttings is watered as needed and kept loose. If raspberry offspring grow weak in one season, they are cut low. The next year, in the fall, the offspring that have grown from the cuttings are dug up and used for planting raspberries.

The output of raspberry seedlings when propagated by root cuttings is about 60-70% of the number of planted cuttings.

Reproduction of raspberries by dividing the bush

In early spring or autumn, a young raspberry bush with several shoots is dug up and divided into parts. Each part of a raspberry bush with a shoot is planted in a new place.

Do I need to update the raspberry tree?

It is absolutely necessary. After 4-5 years, maximum 10 years, the growth of the bush in one place, when the raspberry tree begins to bear fruit worse, or the shoots grow, the raspberry tree must be renewed. This can be done in a number of ways.

First way (best). In a new place for the raspberry the planting material obtained by one of the above-described propagation methods is planted. And even better - they planted there virus-free seedlings purchased in the nursery.

Second way. In an old raspberry bush with a shovel, cut out and remove the central part with the old rhizome. From the remaining roots and offspring, powerful shoots develop quickly, and the yield increases, and the quality of the berries increases.

Updating raspberries should be done regularly. to maintain the yield and quality of berries at a high level. Raspberries should not be allowed to grow in one place for more than 5-10 years, since raspberries suck out the nutrients necessary for their growth from the soil.

How to transplant raspberries?

Transplanting raspberries is practically no different from planting them. It is recommended to prepare the soil in advance, preferably 3-4 years in advance.

To do this, organic fertilizers are applied on the selected site in the 1st year in the fall, the soil is dug to a depth of 20 cm.In the 2nd year, legumes are planted on this site, which are ground and dug up with the soil during flowering - this will give green fertilizer.

In the next one to two years, pumpkin seeds, carrots, and beets are grown on the site. In the year of the autumn transplant, early harvested vegetables (dill or salad) are sown on the site, since the best time for an autumn transplant is August or early September (since a later date is dangerous by freezing).

After harvesting vegetables, the soil is dug up or loosened.

More transplanting raspberries in spring favorably... The harvest is then obtained in the fall, and it will be higher than with the autumn transplantation of raspberries.

It is better if the seedlings are well developed, have fibrous roots at least 15 cm long (cut off very long), and, which is very important, without signs of disease.

The bottom of the hole is covered with a prepared mixture of compost with soil or a mixture of fine sawdust and manure. The roots are squeezed with the same mixture. After transplantation, the tops of the processes are cut off. The soil is lightly compacted, watered and mulched, then kept moist, without weeds.

The growth of raspberry roots occurs in the first 3-5 years, then it weakens, which must be taken into account when organizing its reproduction.

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