Pruning and shaping fruit trees and bushes


Correctly carried out crown formation of fruit, berry and ornamental crops is half the success in the gardener's work. In the section "Pruning and shaping" you will find the secrets of shaping and pruning various crops, learn about the varietal and age characteristics of pruning and trees and shrubs.

You need to prune annually - irregular pruning leads to thickening of the crown and the accumulation of pests and diseases. If you need to cut a large number of branches, it is undesirable to carry out the entire pruning at one time - it is better to stretch the process for 2-3 years.

Today we will talk about flat crowns. An unproductive zone is formed inside the volumetric crowns. Palmettes are devoid of this drawback. Their main branches are located in the same plane in the direction of the row. For this, various types of fasteners are used, most often - trellises

Pruning is one of the main aspects of caring for shrubs and trees. Inexperiencing it or performing it at the wrong time will greatly harm the plant. Today I will talk about the rules for pruning the most common crops.

A fruit plant is a complex organism that requires knowledge of its biological characteristics and the ability to help it in its growth, development, and fruiting. Only in this case can one count on its longevity, obtaining an annual harvest of high-quality fruits.

The main disadvantage of bulky crowns is that an unproductive zone is formed inside them, almost devoid of fruit wood and, accordingly, fruits. Flat crowns, which include palmettes, are devoid of this drawback.

The first pruning is carried out in the first year after planting. If the seedlings are planted with unbranched one-year-olds, they are crowned - cut at a height of 70-90 cm. The varieties on dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks are cut lower than on seedling and medium-sized ones.

Recommendations for pruning and caring for the crown of a number of ornamental and fruit trees and shrubs, as well as lianas. Trimming the root system, which inhibits the development of the aboveground part.

In order to reduce the number of branches cut in spring, I use summer pruning in my gardening practice, with the help of which I prevent the development of unwanted branches already at the beginning of their growth, preserving nutrients for the formation of the crop.

There are many options for forming the crown of a fruit tree, but many gardeners are afraid to do something wrong and let everything go by itself. But in reality, everything is not so difficult. The simplest form of the crown is whorled-tiered, it is also one of the best and easily created.

Passing the garden plots, I often see the deplorable state of apple trees at gardeners. I'll tell you about the basic principles of forming and pruning apple trees, since a description of all the details would take about a hundred pages.

If a tree that poses a threat grows on your site near buildings or power lines, we will knock this tree down in the right direction, or cut it down in parts without damaging your site. +7 (812) 603-47-11

How to create a sparse-tiered crown of an apple tree? Why should skeletal branches have an angle of inclination of 60-70 °? Why should apple tree branches be rejected? What are the options for turning ordinary growth branches into fruit branches? We answer these and other questions

The death of the core in winter occurs often, but this is not always noticeable, since its role is insignificant. When the cambium dies, the whole plant dies. If it survived with a small adjoining area of ​​bark, then it can form new wood and bark.

It is difficult, and sometimes impossible, to bring a neglected apple orchard back to normal. Therefore, it is necessary to cut the apple trees annually, in a timely manner solving all the problems that arise at the moment.

On the 3-5th year, by pruning, skeletal branches of the second order are laid and the second tier of the crown or single skeletal branches are formed. The skeletal branch conductors continue to shorten, but to a lesser extent.

How often we regret that our fruit trees are so large and difficult to care for. There is an exit. To lay a small-sized crown with a height of only 1.5 m on young seedlings. The technology for forming such a crown is the same for all fruit trees.

There is not a single fruit or berry species that does not need pruning - the most important agricultural technique that ensures the successful development of plants. Today we will tell you about pruning chokeberry, honeysuckle and sea buckthorn

Unfortunately, when creating hedges, many gardeners make many serious mistakes, and especially often if conifers are used for this, for example, spruce, pine, transplanted from the nearest forest.

Weak trees are those that are grown from seedlings obtained on semi-dwarf and dwarf rootstocks. For them, we can recommend both a sparse-tiered, and an improved tiered and improved vase-shaped crown.

Today, this landscape style has a number of features that almost everyone will be able to list: the use of compositions of stones and pebbles, mosses, bamboo and flowering trees; obligatory presence of reservoirs with flowing or standing water

When deciding on pruning, it is extremely important to pay attention to the biological state of the tree - the neglect of the crown, the degree of damage to the tree by diseases, whether it was frozen in the past winter, etc. Therefore, in each case, the approach to pruning is individual.

Today we will tell you: about pinching the branches of apple trees, about pruning frozen trees and about light rejuvenating pruning of actively fruiting trees, about the timing and main rules of pruning apple trees.

It must be remembered that pruning is a kind of surgical operation, and it is important to carry it out so that the wounds overgrow faster. All cuts that are performed during pruning can be divided into three types: "kidney", "ring" and "fork"

Some shrubs have similar characteristics in color, texture, color and fruit, but have different volumes at maturity. Using form trimming will make them look identical

Pruning increases flowering and fruiting. The condition of the trees is assessed by the energy of the roots and leaves. Small bushes are most convenient for pruning. Their complex branching makes the bushes a good addition to flower gardens.

After going through different options, I settled on such a famous plant as rose hips. It grows quickly and densely, it can be cut, it is almost not susceptible to diseases and pests, planting material grows free of charge along roads throughout the region

Branches extending from the trunks at an angle of less than 40 °, as well as stepchildren and double-peaked trunks, are potentially prone to fractures. And here the impact of a large harvest, or strong winds, heavy snowfalls, etc., can affect.

Pruning is required for fuchsia after a dormant period, in February - March. Fuchsia is usually propagated by cuttings. Transfer of fuchsias of any age is done when the roots are completely entwined with a ball and appear from the drainage holes at the bottom of the pot.

There are several types of hedges, and the names of plants suitable for this cannot even be enumerated. But the best hedge in my opinion is the trellis, and the best plant for it is the hawthorn. And that's why.

The best time to prune is when the plant is dormant. But if it grows, and its growth needs to be slowed down, cut off the side branches during the growing season. Cut the branches growing inside the bush. Remove branches growing at the base of the trunk.

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Pruning and shaping fruit trees and shrubs - garden and vegetable garden

Growing fruit trees and shrubs.

The main role in the taste and nutritional properties of fruits is played by organic acids, especially malic and citric. There are more of them in berry crops, less in pome crops. Thus, for the human body, pome fruits, which include apple and pear, are less useful than berry crops (currants, gooseberries, strawberries, raspberries).

It is recognized that a person should consume at least 100 kg of fruit per year. Based on this, it is necessary to use the suburban area optimally.

Almost all summer residents grow not only vegetables, but also fruit and berry crops. And this is justified.

When choosing a variety of fruit trees, shrubs, berries for growing on the site, in addition to the taste and nutritional qualities of the fruits, the period of their ripening, varietal pollination, it is important to take into account frost resistance and resistance to diseases. It should be borne in mind that during vegetative dormancy, the aboveground parts of fruit and berry plants tolerate frosts down to -26 ° C, while their roots freeze at -9 ° C (pear), -15 ° C (apple and currant). Therefore, it is very important to cover the soil around trees and berries before the onset of frost.

Should not be imported and plant fruit trees from outside the zoned zone, especially from its south or north. Such trees, as a rule, either freeze out or develop poorly and bear little fruit. In this case, climatic conditions prevail. Moreover, the republic has a sufficient number of varieties of trees with different periods of fruit ripening.

When choosing a location, it is advisable to allocate the maximum of the allocated area for late varieties, somewhat less for autumn and a minimum for summer. And when placing trees on the northern and northwestern sides of the site, plant tall ones, to the south and southeast of them - half-stem and, finally, dwarf plants.

On plots with less limited areas, more often grow high-stem and semi-stem trees ... They live longer, although caring for them is more difficult (pruning, spraying, eating the fruit). Often they also bear periodic fruit. In dachas with small land plots, it is preferable to grow apple and pear trees in the form of wall rootstocks with a low trunk (40-60 cm), dwarf plantings (60-80 cm) or half-stem trees. The advantage of such plantings is accelerated and regular fruiting, simplifying their care and harvesting.

The optimal time for planting apple, pear and bushes is September-October before the onset of frost. The tree (shrub) should root well, and bloom earlier in the spring. It should not be allowed to dry out the roots before planting, and if this happens, then before planting a tree, a bush, it must be immersed in water for a day, and before planting, dipped in a humus-clay-manure talker.

When renovating an old garden, fruit trees should not be planted in the same place. If another option is not possible, then you need to grow vegetables at this place for at least 4-5 years, adding manure and mineral fertilizers to the site. And before planting a new tree, you need to carefully dig up the area and remove even small roots of the old one. If a sick tree grew here, then it is best to refuse to plant a new tree in this place.

But where can you buy a seedling? There are two main ways. The first, the simplest, is to buy from gardeners or farms' nurseries. The second, more difficult one, is to grow a seedling yourself. Unfortunately, there are often cases when the purchased seedling turns out to be the wrong variety or was grown in nurseries infected with cancer, which is even more annoying.

Thus, a safer way is to raise the game yourself and plant the desired variety on it. The process of influencing the seeds of fruit trees to obtain wild (rootstocks) from them is called stratification and lasts 120-130 days. For example, to get seeds of Antonovka vulgaris (one of the best varietal options), suitable for sowing in April, already in December - early January, the seeds are mixed with river sand (1: 3), moistened (water should not stand) and placed in a box in a cellar with a temperature of 5 to 10 ° C, periodically stir and moisten the mixture. By spring they will be ready for sowing in the ground. On the stock grown over the year, a cutting of the desired apple variety should be grafted.

Sapling before landing inspect, remove damaged, dried, frozen roots. Pruning too long, weak. In the spring, the seedlings are examined, squeezed (trampled) around them the soil and mulched with peat or a mixture of compost and soil, which helps to retain moisture and better survival rate. Shoots are shortened, unnecessary ones are removed.


Pruning fruit trees and shrubs in 2021: calendar, auspicious days

To have a good harvest, it is not enough just to plant a fruit tree. It is necessary to constantly keep it in shape. To do this, the branches are cut, giving them the right direction and removing unnecessary and sick ones.

Every gardener wants his fruit trees and shrubs on the backyard to look healthy, well-groomed, and productive. To do this, they need to be cut off at the right time. Using the Lunar calendar for pruning fruit trees, you can carry out this procedure with the least stress for garden plants in spring, autumn, winter. Then your garden will be transformed for the better, will have a wonderful view and will be grateful with the harvest.


What is the purpose of pruning trees in the garden

Fruit trees in industrial and amateur gardens are generally pruned in order to form a beautiful, rational crown and increase the number of fruits from each tree with their high quality.

In our case, the rationality of the crown means such a crown that would allow you to easily take care of trees and collect fruits.

This crown should be moderately high and not too spreading.

Based on the age of the trees, several types of pruning are used. Each type of pruning for a certain age of the tree has specific goals and objectives.

Although the crowns of different fruit crops (and even different varieties of the same crop) have their own distinctive features, the principles of tree crown formation and tree pruning operations are largely similar.


Unfavorable days for pruning bushes and trees in 2021

Unfavorable days for any gardening work (including pruning) are the days when the Earth's satellite changes its cycle - full moon and new moon. Also, the days of the rising moon are not recommended, since it is during this period that the sap flow is directed upward, making the cut points too sensitive.

In the spring

The climate calendar recommends postponing spring pruning until the snow cover melts and the air temperature rises to at least -5 ° C. Weaker crops (for example, grapes) are recommended not to be touched at all until the moment when it will be possible to finally remove the shelter. However, the lunar calendar supplements these recommendations by highlighting unfavorable days:

  • March: 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 24, 25
  • April: 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 20, 21, 29, 30.

In autumn

Unfavorable days for autumn pruning will be the dates preceding the imminent onset of frost. As for the limitations of astrologers, they are as follows:

  • September: 2, 9, 25
  • October: 1, 9, 24
  • November: 1, 7, 23.


Bad days

Unfavorable days for any gardening work (including pruning) are the days when the Earth's satellite changes its cycle - full moon and new moon. Also, the days of the rising moon are not recommended, since it is during this period that the sap flow is directed upward, making the cut points too sensitive.

In the spring

The climate calendar recommends postponing spring pruning until the snow cover melts and the air temperature rises to at least -5 ° C.Weaker crops (for example, grapes) are recommended not to be touched at all until the moment when it will be possible to finally remove the shelter. However, the lunar calendar supplements these recommendations by highlighting unfavorable days:

  • March: 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 24, 25
  • April: 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 20, 21, 29, 30.

In autumn

Unfavorable days for autumn pruning will be the dates preceding the imminent onset of frost. As for the limitations of astrologers, they are as follows:

  • September: 2, 9, 25
  • October: 1, 9, 24
  • November: 1, 7, 23.


Watch the video: How to Prune an Apple Tree!


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