Date palm


The date palm is very often grown at home due to the fact that it is very easy to care for it and it is not very difficult to grow from the stone of an ordinary date purchased in the store. We can safely say that she is one of the most interesting representatives of the palm family, along with pine needles and chamedorea.

Date palm care at home

Location

This plant is quite light-loving, so as much light as possible should be organized for it throughout the year. She needs a room with good ventilation, since she does not tolerate stagnant air. In the summer, when it is warm outside, the date palm can be taken out on the balcony or installed in the front garden, where it will feel good. In winter, the temperature will be normal for her. + 10- + 15 ° С, but at the same time, there should be enough light. In order for the plant to grow evenly, it must be constantly rotated relative to the incident light rays. The top of the palm tree, on which the young leaf is formed, should always be directed into the interior of the room, and not towards the light source.

Watering

In the summer, the date palm requires abundant watering, like all representatives of warm countries. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that there is no stagnation of moisture, otherwise the process of root rotting may develop, and then, if this process is started, the plant may die. If water appears in the pan after watering, then you need to drain it immediately. A signal that watering should be reduced is the appearance of brown spots on the leaves. If the whole plant begins to darken, then it is better to immediately transplant it into a pot with fresh soil.

If the earthen coma is overdried, the palm tree may drop leaves that will not return to their original position.

This plant does not have any special requirements for air humidity, but dry air can cause the tips of the leaves to dry out. In this case, it should be sprayed more often, especially during very hot periods.

For irrigation, it is better to use soft water: in summer - rainwater, in winter - snowy, but always at room temperature.

If the lower leaves darken and die off, then this is most likely a natural process.

Transfer

A young date palm requires an annual transplant for the first 5 years of life. After that, the palm is transplanted as needed, if the roots have occupied the entire volume of the pot. In the case of such root growth, you can cut off part of the roots without any problems. You can buy soil for transplanting at a flower shop, but you can also prepare it yourself from the following components:

  • 1 part of turf land.
  • 1 part humus.
  • 1 part compost.
  • 1 part sand.

In any case, efficient drainage should be provided.

Reproduction

The date palm is propagated by seed. As a rule, this is a common stone of the well-known date. The process is quite lengthy and can last from 3 to 6 months, maybe more. It all depends on the conditions under which the seed germinates. It is very important to ensure the temperature regime, which should be within + 25- + 30 ° С and normal humidity. In a dry place, the bone will not germinate. It may happen that the seed may not germinate until the very cold, but the temperature should be maintained until the moment when a young sprout appears.

The stone can be planted in peat, perlite, sand or sphagnum moss. The main thing is that the material can retain moisture.

In order for the bone to grow guaranteed, you need to break the integrity of the shell with any available object: a file, a knife, a hacksaw, etc. This should be done very carefully so as not to damage the kernel.

The seed is planted vertically. The distance from the ground surface to the top of the bone should be no more than 1 cm. As soon as a young sprout appears, the palm tree can be transplanted into a pot and moved to a bright place.

How to grow a DATE PALM from a stone

Top dressing, fertilizers

For the normal development of a houseplant, such as a date palm, it is necessary to make regular, once every 10 days, feeding, during the period of active growth, from spring to autumn. In winter, when the palm tree is at rest, feeding is reduced to 1 time per month. The palm tree loves most of all organic fertilizers, which you can buy or prepare yourself. In the summer, once a month, you should provide for feeding with potash nitrate, at the rate of 1 g of nitrate per 1 liter of water.

Pests and diseases

Pests and diseases affect the date palm as a result of improper care and violation of conditions of detention. These can be scale insects, mealybugs, spider mites, etc. The main condition for effective control of diseases and pests is the correction of those mistakes that were made as a result of growing the date palm at home. Remove pests, as well as traces of their vital activity mechanically. To do this, take a solution of liquid soap (dilute 15 g in 1 liter of water) and wipe the palm leaves with it. If these efforts have yielded nothing, then the procedure is repeated in a week. At the same time, measures should be taken so that the soap solution does not get into the pot with the earth, as this solution can eventually penetrate to the root system. If the infection is strong enough and such simple and affordable means do not help, then it is better to treat the date palm with insecticides, for example, actellik.

The palm tree is not only affected by pests, but can also get sick with diseases such as pink rot, which affects all parts of the plant, and spots that can disfigure the leaf plate. As a rule, only weak and unkempt plants are affected by such diseases. Therefore, you can make the only right way out: to prevent this from happening, the date palm needs proper and regular care.

If the moment is missed and the palm is sick, then you need to treat the tree with a fungicide, which includes mancozeb and methyl thiophanate. In this case, two processing sessions are performed with a week break. But the most important thing is to analyze and find out the cause of the appearance of such a disease, otherwise it will be able to repeat itself after some time.

DATE PALM. Features of home care


India and Africa are considered the birthplace of this plant. Under natural conditions, the height of a palm tree is 30 m. The underground part is fragile and sensitive. The sheets are large and curved, with sharp points at the tips. Their growth occurs evenly or in bunches. Thorns often appear on small petioles. Elongated inflorescences are formed in the axils of the leaves, they are of only one sex.

Fleshy flowers of 2 types: female, distinguished by a white color, and male, with a cream shade. In nature, there are 5-10 thousand flowers per plant. Due to the large weight of ripe fruits, the inflorescences bend.

Dates are oblong or oval in shape. They are up to 8 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. Fruits are loved for their valuable properties. There are 17 types of date palm. The plant looks great at home, the main thing is that it is properly looked after.


Location

This plant is quite light-loving, so as much light as possible should be organized for it throughout the year. She needs a room with good ventilation, since she does not tolerate stagnant air. In the summer, when it is warm outside, the date palm can be taken out on the balcony or installed in the front garden, where it will feel good. In winter, the temperature will be normal for her. 10-15 ° C, but at the same time, there should be enough light. In order for the plant to grow evenly, it must be constantly rotated relative to the incident light rays. The top of the palm tree, on which the young leaf is formed, should always be directed into the interior of the room, and not towards the light source.

Watering

In the summer, the date palm requires abundant watering, like all representatives of warm countries. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that there is no stagnation of moisture, otherwise the process of root rotting may develop, and then, if this process is started, the plant may die. If water appears in the pan after watering, then you need to drain it immediately. A signal that watering should be reduced is the appearance of brown spots on the leaves. If the whole plant begins to darken, then it is better to immediately transplant it into a pot with fresh soil.

If the earthen coma is overdried, the palm tree may drop leaves that will not return to their original position.

This plant does not have any special requirements for air humidity, but dry air can cause the tips of the leaves to dry out. In this case, it should be sprayed more often, especially during very hot periods.

For irrigation, it is better to use soft water: in summer - rainwater, in winter - snowy, but always at room temperature.

If the lower leaves darken and die off, then this is most likely a natural process.

Transfer

A young date palm requires an annual transplant for the first 5 years of life. After that, the palm is transplanted as needed, if the roots have occupied the entire volume of the pot. In the case of such root growth, you can cut off part of the roots without any problems. You can buy soil for transplanting at a flower shop, but you can also prepare it yourself from the following components:

  • 1 part of turf land.
  • 1 part humus.
  • 1 part compost.
  • 1 part sand.

In any case, efficient drainage should be provided.

Reproduction

The date palm is propagated by seed. As a rule, this is a common stone of the well-known date. The process is quite lengthy and can last from 3 to 6 months, maybe more. It all depends on the conditions under which the seed germinates. It is very important to ensure the temperature regime, which should be within 25-30 ° C and normal humidity. In a dry place, the bone will not germinate. It may happen that the seed may not germinate until the very cold, but the temperature should be maintained until the moment when a young sprout appears.

The stone can be planted in peat, perlite, sand or sphagnum moss. The main thing is that the material can retain moisture.

In order for the bone to grow guaranteed, it is necessary to break the integrity of the shell with any available object: a file, a knife, a hacksaw for metal, etc. This should be done very carefully so as not to damage the kernel.

The seed is planted vertically. The distance from the ground surface to the top of the bone should be no more than 1 cm. As soon as a young sprout appears, the palm tree can be transplanted into a pot and moved to a bright place.

Top dressing, fertilizers

For the normal development of a houseplant, such as a date palm, it is necessary to make regular feeding, once every 10 days, during the period of active growth, from spring to autumn. In winter, when the palm tree is at rest, feeding is reduced to 1 time per month. The palm tree loves most of all organic fertilizers, which you can buy or prepare yourself. In the summer, once a month, you should provide for feeding with potash nitrate, at the rate of 1 g of nitrate per 1 liter of water.

Pests and diseases

Pests and diseases affect the date palm as a result of improper care and violation of conditions of detention. These can be scale insects, mealybugs, spider mites, etc. The main condition for effective control of diseases and pests is the correction of those mistakes that were made as a result of growing the date palm at home. Remove pests, as well as traces of their vital activity mechanically. To do this, take a solution of liquid soap (dilute 15 g in 1 liter of water) and wipe the palm leaves with it. If these efforts have yielded nothing, then the procedure is repeated in a week. At the same time, measures should be taken so that the soap solution does not get into the pot with the earth, as this solution can eventually penetrate to the root system. If the infection is strong enough and such simple and affordable means do not help, then it is better to treat the date palm with insecticides, for example, actellik.

The palm tree is not only affected by pests, but can also get sick with diseases such as pink rot, which affects all parts of the plant, and spots that can disfigure the leaf plate. As a rule, only weak and unkempt plants are affected by such diseases. Therefore, you can make the only right way out: to prevent this from happening, the date palm needs proper and regular care.

If the moment is missed and the palm is sick, then you need to treat the tree with a fungicide, which includes mancozeb and methyl thiophanate. In this case, two processing sessions are performed with a week break. But the most important thing is to analyze and find out the cause of the appearance of such a disease, otherwise it will be able to repeat itself after some time.


How to plant a date palm at home and transplant a seedling into a new pot

If you are not ready to wait 5 years for your apartment to look like an oasis and have bought a grown tree, or your seedling has grown to a height of 10 cm, it needs to be transplanted into nutritious soil.

The optimal soil for a palm tree is as follows:

  • Sod or leafy ground (you can mix) - 50%.
  • Humus - 25%.
  • Sand - 25%.

A young tree or a grown sprout should be very carefully removed from the ground, trying to preserve the soil layer around its roots. In order to better understand how to plant a date palm in a new pot at home, you need to focus on how much the roots have grown. If the plant is 1-2 years old, you need to take such a pot so that it is 20 cm larger in diameter than the diameter of the roots. If you are planting your sprout, then take a pot slightly larger than the one in which you grew it.

After transplanting, the soil should be watered so that it is loose and the roots fit comfortably into it. You should put a saucer or a special stand under the pot - if you "drink" a plant that has just been transplanted, it will give excess water down.

The date palm is a good houseplant if properly cared for. Correct fit alone is not enough. It is necessary to take into account the frequency of watering, the uniformity of lighting and constantly replant the growing tree. It is also worth dealing with the problems that may arise. Still, the plant is exotic, although the least whimsical among its relatives.


How to care

Standard care includes:

  • abundant watering
  • timely feeding
  • pruning
  • seasonal transplant.

Selection of soil and pot

For planting dates, it is best to use disposable cups with drainage holes. They must be filled with sterile soil, which consists of the following components:

  • leaf land - part 1
  • perlite - 1 part
  • vermiculite - 1 part.

The ground level should be 1 centimeter below the edge of the glass. After planting, the surface is covered with charcoal. The condition of the soil is warm and moist. The pot should be made of plastic or light wood.

Location and lighting

The date palm is a light-loving plant. Remembering the habitat of palm trees, we can conclude that the plant needs a spacious, bright room with a minimum of furniture and a sufficient amount of diffused light. Indoor palms do not tolerate direct sunlight, which causes leaf burns. The plant must be rotated regularly, otherwise the leaves will not grow evenly.In summer, the date can be placed on the balcony.

Temperature, humidity, watering

The optimum temperature during the growth of a palm tree in summer and autumn is + 20 ... + 25 ° С. The root system of date palms can hardly stand the cold: it is undesirable to place the plant on a cold floor and windowsill.

Under natural conditions, the date grows in regions with little rainfall. Thanks to its long roots, the plant is able to extract water from the depths of the earth, even in the driest times. But in home care, the palm tree needs a sufficient amount of moisture. It is recommended to drain the excess water accumulating in the pan after watering. It is recommended to water the dates with soft warm water without chlorine. Watering with hard water can lead to plant disease.

Give the plant a shower once a week. The soil must remain dry during this procedure. As a result, it is better to cover the topsoil with a film. Frequent watering is required in the spring-summer period - from April to August. The frequency of watering in winter should be reduced to one per week.

Fertilizers and feeding

For feeding, you must use fertilizers purchased in a specialized store. It is preferable to purchase top dressing in liquid form with a high nitrogen content. This chemical is responsible for the increased growth of the green crown. Before applying top dressing, it is necessary to moisten the soil with plain water. In spring and summer, top dressing is carried out 2 times a month, and in winter - 1 time per month. It is also permissible to use feeding from bird droppings (chicken, pigeon).

In order to independently prepare fertilizer, the third part of a three-liter jar must be filled with bird droppings and topped up with water. The mass should be infused for 10 days, stirring regularly. Plants should be watered with a liquid consisting of 1 part fertilizer and 10 parts water.

Transfer

The roots of the plant are very fragile and easily damaged. Therefore, a plant with a clod of earth is transplanted in the spring, using the transshipment method. When transplanting, the plant is pre-watered abundantly. Make good drainage at the bottom of the pot.

A young plant is transplanted (transplanted) annually up to 5 years of age, and an adult once every 2-3 years.

Pruning

It is strictly forbidden to cut the top of the palm tree, because its growth point is located in the upper part. This is fraught with the death of the palm tree. Yellowed, broken, dead and severely drooping leaves should be removed immediately. In one year, you cannot cut off more leaves than they have grown in that year. Cutting off the leaves should not damage the trunk. In the first years of life and growth, it is undesirable to cut a palm tree.

Winter care

In the room in which the plant will be in winter, the temperature should not rise above + 16 ... + 18 ° С. If the temperature background is higher than +18 degrees, then it is advisable to move the planter with a palm tree to a cooler place (to the balcony or window).

The optimum humidity in the room in winter is 50-60%.


Possible growing difficulties

There are situations when the tips of the date palm leaves begin to dry, which significantly reduces the decorative effect of the green planting. This indicates dry indoor air, you should spray more often. If the plates lose their color and turn yellow, then the reason must be sought in a lack of moisture. Darkening of the leaves occurs when moisture stagnates in the pot; it is necessary to reduce the frequency of irrigation measures. The suspension of growth processes is observed when the flower is kept in a cold room (from +16 ° C).

In general, even novice plant growing enthusiasts can grow a date palm at home. The main thing is to water the plant often, but in moderation, to periodically apply fertilizers, to protect against diseases and pests. Waterlogging of the soil must not be allowed, otherwise there is a high probability of root rot. To propagate a tropical culture is possible only in a generative way - by seeds.


Watch the video: Dates palm Harvesting by Shaking Machine - Packing Dates Modern Agricultural Technology


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