Fruit and berry plants
Sea buckthorn (lat.Hippophae) belongs to the genus of plants of the Lokhovye family, which grow along the banks of rivers and lakes, mainly on sand or pebbles. Sea buckthorn can be found in the mountains at an altitude of 2,100 meters above sea level. In folk medicine, sea buckthorn was used to treat both people and horses in ancient Greece, and although over time it was forgotten for some reason, in recent decades it has again become widely used.
By the way, the scientific name of sea buckthorn is translated from Greek as "shine for horses" - the skins of animals feeding on the leaves of the plant acquired a satin tint. In Russia, sea buckthorn has been cultivated since the 19th century, but varietal plants appeared only in the 30s of the last century.
Read more about growing sea buckthorn below.
Sea buckthorn can be a shrub or a small tree with a height of 10 cm to 6 meters or more. The root system of the plant is superficial, it is located at a depth of about 40 cm, but it grows in width by a distance exceeding the diameter of the crown by 2-2.5 times. The leaves of the sea buckthorn are alternate, long and narrow, speckled green on the upper side of the plate and silvery-whitish or reddish-golden with stellate scales below. Small and inconspicuous unisexual flowers open on the sea buckthorn almost simultaneously with the leaves. Sea buckthorn blooms in late April or early May.
Sea buckthorn is a dioecious plant: male silvery-brown flowers form short spike-shaped inflorescences at the bases of young shoots, and yellowish female flowers appear one or several pieces in the axils of covering scales. Sea buckthorn fruits are spherical or elongated false drupes, consisting of a nut and a juicy overgrown orange or reddish receptacle, ripen in 90-100 days. The sea buckthorn branch is densely covered with fruits, which is reflected in the Russian name of the plant.
Jam and juice are made from sea buckthorn berries, but the main value of the plant is healing oil, which is popularly considered miraculous. Sea buckthorn is a winter-hardy plant that can withstand frosts down to -50 ºC, and roots in the ground can withstand temperatures as low as -20 ºC. Sea buckthorn is afraid of winter thaws much more frost - in conditions when the ground does not freeze, its roots can rot.
Sea buckthorn grown in splendid isolation does not bear fruit, since female and male sea buckthorn flowers are usually found on different bushes. True, sometimes, very rarely, you can find forms with bisexual flowers. Usually, the fruits are formed on female plants, and male ones are needed for their pollination: one male bush is enough to pollinate 3-5 female plants. It is impossible to determine the sex of a young plant, clarity comes only when flower buds form on the bush - there are more of them on the male specimens and they are much larger than on the female ones. Fruiting occurs in 4-6 years from the beginning of growth.
Today, sea buckthorn is gradually restoring its lost positions many centuries ago, and although so far it can be found in our gardens not as often as grapes, raspberries, strawberries, gooseberries or currants, but more often than irgu, strawberries, blackberries, blueberries, blueberries or actinidia ... We value sea buckthorn not only for its taste, but also for its undeniable health benefits.
In our article, we will focus on the sea buckthorn buckthorn, which grows almost throughout Europe, including in our gardens. We will tell you how the planting and care of sea buckthorn is carried out: when and how to plant sea buckthorn in a garden plot or in the country, how to care for sea buckthorn throughout the growing season, how to feed sea buckthorn in order to achieve consistently high yields, how to spray sea buckthorn against diseases and pests, when and how to cut sea buckthorn and how to propagate sea buckthorn by seed and vegetative methods.
It is customary to plant sea buckthorn in early spring, before budding on trees, since it is very difficult for it to tolerate this procedure in autumn. As a rule, a sunny area is allocated for sea buckthorn at the periphery of the garden - one male specimen and 3-4 female plants can be located there.
On acidic soils, as well as on clayey soils, sea buckthorn will not grow well, the optimal pH of the soil is pH 6.5-7.0. Before planting sea buckthorn, acidic soils are limestone, adding ground limestone or lime tuff for digging in the calculation of 250-400 g per m² - this amount of deoxidizers will be enough for 8-10 years. The groundwater on the site should be no higher than at a depth of 2 m. Do not plant sea buckthorn where strawberries grew before it, since they have the same diseases.
For planting, it is better to purchase one-year or two-year-old sea buckthorn seedlings, the roots of which are dipped in a clay mash before planting. If you find that the root system of the seedlings is dry, place their roots first for a day or two in a bucket of water so that they regain their elasticity.
A plot for sea buckthorn is prepared in the fall: they dig up the soil to the depth of a shovel bayonet with the simultaneous introduction of 20 g of potassium sulfate, 200 g of superphosphate and 4-5 buckets of humus for each m². In the spring, pits measuring 65x65x65 cm are dug at a distance of 2 m from each other, a peg 1-1.20 m high is driven into the center of each pit and a mound of fertile soil is poured onto which a seedling is placed. The roots of the seedling are straightened, after which the pit is covered with earth mixed with coarse sand, humus or peat in equal proportions so that the root collar of the tree is in the soil at a depth of no more than 3 cm.
A small circular hole is left around the seedling for watering, the tree is tied to a peg and 2-3 buckets of water are poured into the irrigation hole. When the water is absorbed, the hole is mulched with humus or dry earth, leveling it with the surface of the site. The first time, for the seedling to take root in a new place, it is watered daily for a month.
As we already wrote, it is undesirable to plant sea buckthorn in autumn, but if such a need arises, try to plant sea buckthorn before mid-October so that it has time to take root before frost. This can be done only in areas where winter comes late, and only if the sea buckthorn seedling meets all the requirements put forward for it: the seedling ready for planting must have at least 3 skeletal roots up to 20 cm long and many fibrous roots: the stem must be high from 35 to 50 cm and a diameter of at least 6 cm; there should be several shoots on the stem. In a healthy plant, the bark is elastic, without damage or wrinkles. It should not flake off the wood, and the wood should not have a brown tint, as this is evidence that the seedling is frostbitten.
Dig a hole of the dimensions indicated in the previous section, drive a peg into its center, pour soil from under an adult sea buckthorn mixed with a bucket of humus, a handful of double superphosphate and a glass of wood ash on the bottom. Otherwise, follow the instructions in the previous section.
Planting and caring for sea buckthorn does not imply special difficulties in performance, however, it requires certain knowledge and skills. At the end of March, as soon as it gets warmer, the sea buckthorn is sanitized, removing all broken, diseased, withered and drooping branches. In April, you need to drill or loosen the soil in the sea buckthorn tree trunks and in the aisles.
In May, watering of the sea buckthorn is carried out. It is especially necessary if there was no snow in winter and rains in spring. If in the winter months there was enough snow, and the spring was rainy, you can take your time with watering the sea buckthorn.
If the weather is calm during the flowering of the sea buckthorn, carry out additional pollination: cut a twig from the male tree and shake it over the crown of the female plant.
Caring for sea buckthorn in the summer is due to the intensive growth of shoots and fruits. In summer, the plant especially needs moisture, so drying out of the soil in the near-stem circles is unacceptable. However, keep in mind that waterlogging is just as harmful as a lack of moisture: in too moist soil, air exchange worsens and, therefore, the vital activity of the roots slows down.
Maintain the water balance of the soil, and a day after watering, loosen the soil in the aisles and near-trunk circles. Remove weeds and root growth. Closely monitor the condition of the leaves and shoots of the sea buckthorn in order to detect the onset of the disease in time.
In August-September, ripening of sea buckthorn fruits begins. To prevent branches overloaded with berries from breaking, prop them up in time. They begin to harvest the berries when they acquire the color and size characteristic of the variety.
After harvesting, sea buckthorn needs sanitary pruning, and mature bushes in the fall are rejuvenated in turn - one bush every year. In dry autumn, sea buckthorn must be watered abundantly for the winter. In addition, in the fall, organic and phosphorus fertilizers are introduced into the soil, embedding them for digging a site to a depth of 10 cm.
Everyone knows that it is easier to prevent a problem than to deal with it. To protect your sea buckthorn from pests and dangerous pathogens, it is necessary to carry out preventive treatments.
In early spring, you need to collect the fallen leaves, remove the remains of flowers and fruits from the trees, clean the wounds on the trunks and branches and treat them with a 3% solution of copper sulfate, after which you should whitewash the stem and skeletal branches of sea buckthorn with lime to protect the bark of the tree from pests. A measure such as treating sea buckthorn with a 7% urea solution or a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid twice a season - in early spring and late autumn - has proven itself well as a prophylaxis against fungal diseases and pest infestations.
During the season, if pests appear on the sea buckthorn, treat the bush or tree once a week with a solution of wood ash.
Watering the sea buckthorn is carried out as needed, trying to wet the entire root layer of the soil. For this, 3-4 buckets of water are enough for a young plant, poured into a near-trunk circle, and mature trees will need from 6 to 8 buckets. Closer to autumn, the water consumption per tree increases by one and a half times. Water-charging podzimny watering is very important for sea buckthorn - it enhances its winter hardiness.
After watering or rain, be sure to loosen the soil on the site: nodules form on the roots of the sea buckthorn, in which bacteria live, assimilating nitrogen from the air and enriching the root layer of the soil with nitrogenous compounds vital for the plant. That is why the soil on the site must be loose all the time. However, be careful: the root system of the sea buckthorn is vertical, and it is very easy to damage it, so it is best to mulch the trunks with humus or compost from potato tops or birch or apple leaves, then you rarely have to loosen the soil.
Cultivation of sea buckthorn provides for regular feeding of the plant, starting from the third year of growth. Since the root system itself supplies itself with nitrogen, it will be necessary to apply only potash and phosphorus fertilizers under a mature plant, but up to five years, until the root system develops, ammonium nitrate is scattered along the near-stem circle of sea buckthorn every spring at the rate of 20 g per m², after which they cover its layer of soil.
An adult plant, which has already entered the season of fruiting, immediately after flowering, and then one more time after three weeks is treated on the leaves with a solution of one spoonful of liquid potassium humate or Effekton in 10 liters of water. During the growth period of the ovaries, the sea buckthorn preparing for fruiting is fed with a solution of two tablespoons of double superphosphate in granules, the same amount of the Universal-micro nutrient mixture and a tablespoon of potassium sulfate in 10 liters of water.
During the autumn digging, 30 g of superphosphate, 100 g of wood ash and 25 g of potassium salt are scattered over the site on each m². If the soil in the area is acidic, instead of superphosphate, use phosphate rock as fertilizer at the rate of 50 g per m².
In principle, you can prune sea buckthorn at any time of the year, except for winter. But most often, sea buckthorn bushes are pruned in the spring, during the dormant period, while it has not yet warmed up. In autumn, as a rule, sea buckthorn is prepared for wintering and sanitary pruning is carried out.
In the spring, sea buckthorn is put in order after winter - they cut off the diseased and shriveled shoots and branches broken under the weight of snow. Young trees are subjected to formative pruning, and here it is important to decide as early as possible whether you will grow a tree or a bush.
If you want the sea buckthorn to grow as a bush, cut off the newly planted seedling at a height of 10-20 cm, and the next year from the growth that has appeared on the hemp and sprouted from the root, leave no more than 4 shoots, and remove the remaining shoots completely. Just keep in mind that you can count on shoots from the root only if the sea buckthorn seedling is own-rooted.
If you decide that your sea buckthorn will be a tree, shape it with a 30 cm high stem and 2-4 skeletal branches. You do not need to cut a seedling with already formed branches, but if there are no branches on it, shorten it to 30 cm, and next year form 3-4 skeletal branches and a conductor from the emerging shoots and level them in height. If after a year the branches grow too much, shorten them by a third or a quarter of their length. When the trees are ripe for fruiting, do not cut the tops of the shoots, as these are where the flower buds form.
In the future, the formation of both a bush and a tree consists in the removal of thickening, excess shoots growing in the wrong direction and unnecessary overgrowth.By the way, in order to remove the root processes, you need to dig them out and very carefully, trying not to damage the root system of the mother plant, cut them into a ring in the place from where they germinated.
When your sea buckthorn is six years old, it's time for rejuvenating pruning, which is also best done in the spring. Branches that have ceased to bear fruit are cut out and replaced with the younger ones of the strongest, even topside branches. This should be done gradually - replace annually from 1 to 3 branches, no more.
Don't be discouraged if the tree dies from frost. If the root is alive, simply cut the dead tree or bush down to the root collar and start forming a new plant.
In late autumn, when the sea buckthorn enters the dormant period, cut off all unnecessary, too old, broken, dried, improperly growing and diseased branches and shoots so that the plant does not feed them in vain all winter. Use only sharpened sterile instruments for pruning so that they do not crush the bark and wound.
Sea buckthorn reproduces easily and in different ways: seed and vegetative - by cuttings, grafting, dividing the bush, shoots and layering. All of these methods are easy to implement.
If you want to get a varietal seedling, it is better to use vegetative propagation methods, because seedlings, as a rule, do not repeat the varietal characteristics of the parent plant. With the help of seed propagation, new varieties of plants are usually bred. In addition, seedlings grown from seeds are used as a rootstock for propagation of sea buckthorn by grafting.
Sea buckthorn seeds do not lose their germination for more than two years. At the end of April, after preliminary stratification for a month and a half in the lower drawer of the refrigerator, the seeds are sown at a shallow depth and germinated as usual: in the light, in a warm place, covered with glass. Seedlings can appear in a week or two, and for the first time they are shaded from direct sunlight. In mid-June, the seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place, having previously shortened the long taproot in order to stimulate the development of the root system.
This method involves both green cuttings of sea buckthorn and rooting of woody cuttings. Lignified cuttings are harvested in late November or even early December, but it is better to cut them in late March or early April. To do this, choose two-year increments with a thickness of at least 6 cm and cut from them segments 15-20 cm long. Cuttings of sea buckthorn cut in autumn are tied in a bunch, wrapped in cloth, put in a plastic bag, buried in a hole and covered with snow, and if there is no snow, then fall asleep with spruce branches or dry leaves.
Cuttings saved from the fall or cut in March in the spring before planting are kept in water for three days, changing it from time to time. It will be nice if you add a root stimulant to the water. After that, the cuttings are planted in the ground at an angle so that at least 2-3 buds remain above the surface, but most of them remain underground. By autumn, the stalk can stretch up to 60 cm in height. Sea buckthorn begins to bear fruit from the stalk in the third year.
Green cuttings are more difficult to root. They will need special conditions: sterile loose soil mixture, covered with a layer of washed sand, root formation stimulants, regular spraying of moisture to create high air humidity, etc.
This method is good if you have a young tree or bush with well-bending branches on your site. In the spring, select a branch with good growth, bend it down, put it in a shallow groove, secure it and cover it with earth. Water it throughout the season, feed it, loosen the soil around it, and remove weeds. The next spring, when the cuttings take root, they are separated from the mother plant, dug up along with the roots, and planted in a permanent place.
For this type of reproduction, you need to take shoots of own-rooted sea buckthorn that grow no closer than one and a half meters from the mother tree - usually they already have a root system. During the season, the shoot is highly spud, watered, fed, and in the spring it is carefully separated and planted in a new place.
When propagating in this way, they dig out the entire sea buckthorn bush, cut off the old branches on it, use a pruner to divide the bush into several parts, each of which should have developed shoots and roots, process the cuts with crushed coal, after which the cuttings are planted in pre-prepared pits and looked after, like a sapling.
This method is the most troublesome of all vegetative ones. Is it worth it to vaccinate when there are so many simpler and no less effective opportunities to propagate sea buckthorn? It turns out that it is worth it: in this way, in order not to plant a new plant, to graft a male stalk to a female plant. Or grow the variety you need on a viable rootstock.
The best time to get vaccinated is late April or early May. The stem of a two-year-old seedling, which will be used as a rootstock, is cut back for growth 1.5-2 cm above the root collar, the strongest shoot 10 cm high is left on the rootstock, the rest are removed or broken out. The remaining shoot is grown all summer long, pinching it so that it does not grow in height, but thickens. Its lower part, up to 13-15 cm in height, is cleared of growths, so that by next spring a smooth and even stem is formed from the shoot.
In the third spring, when the seedling grows to 50-60 cm, and its diameter reaches 5-9 mm, they carry out improved copulation of cuttings of the variety you need at a height of 8-10 cm from the root collar. Cuttings take root to an artificially formed stem much easier than if you grafted them to the root collar. It is characteristic that cuttings taken from female trees take root better than male ones.
For some reason, it has always been believed that sea buckthorn is little affected by diseases, however, along with the spread of this culture in our gardens, it turned out that such a statement has no basis. Sea buckthorn, like other fruit trees, is affected by fungal, viral and bacterial diseases. Most often, sea buckthorn suffers from diseases such as:
Endomycosis - fungal disease of a focal nature, which manifests itself in early August on the fruits of sea buckthorn, which become flabby, soft and filled with gray odorless mucus. The shell of the affected berries breaks through, and the contents flow out onto neighboring berries, infecting them with endomycosis. Rain and dew contribute to the development of the disease.
Control measures. Sea buckthorn treatment consists in a two-stage treatment with one percent Bordeaux liquid or copper oxychloride. The first treatment is carried out after the end of flowering, and the second in mid-July;
Black cancer appears as dark round spots on large branches. With the development of the disease in the places of these spots, the bark turns black, becomes covered with cracks and falls off, the wood darkens and rots. The causative agent of the disease penetrates the places of frostbite or wounds during pruning.
Control measures. The affected areas are cleaned from diseased bark and wood to healthy tissue, treated with copper sulfate, and then a mixture of clay with mullein;
Blackleg, excited by soil fungi, it thinns the stem of the seedling at the point of contact of the seedling's hypocotal knee with the soil. Young seedlings are affected by the disease.
Control measures. Grow the seedlings on a substrate of washed sand mixed with turf soil. As a preventive measure, water the seedlings with a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate once every few days, but if the disease still manifests itself, then treat them with a solution of potassium permanganate daily:
Scab, or stegmina - This is a fungal disease that affects young shoots, leaves and fruits, often leads to the drying of the shoots, or even the entire plant. In the middle of summer, black, round, shiny spots are formed on the berries, gradually increasing in size. Then, pink or yellow mucous formations appear through the ruptures of the fruits. The fruits dry up and turn black. Black swellings appear on the shoots of the current year, black velvety spots and ulcers on the leaves. The bush looks like it has been sprayed with black ink.
Control measures. As a preventive measure, every autumn, carry out a sanitary pruning of sea buckthorn, after which burn all plant residues, and treat the sea buckthorn with one percent Bordeaux liquid no later than 20 days before harvest;
Gray and brown rot - these diseases appear in July, and rainy weather contributes to their development. From gray rot, sea buckthorn fruits shrivel and wither, and from brown, dark spots appear on the berries.
Control measures. Plants showing signs of disease are cut and burned. As a preventive measure, the rules for caring for sea buckthorn are strictly observed - watering, loosening the soil, feeding.
In addition to the diseases described, sea buckthorn can be affected by fusarium, verticilliasis, alternaria, phomosis, terry sea buckthorn, annular necrosis of branches and corineum necrosis, mixed and heart-shaped rot of the trunk, however, if you follow the agrotechnics of sea buckthorn, you may never know what the symptoms of these diseases look like.
The most dangerous pests for sea buckthorn are:
Sea buckthorn moth - its caterpillars penetrate the kidneys during their swelling and eat them out from the inside;
Control measures. The best way to get rid of moths is to treat sea buckthorn with a solution of Karbofos during the period of swelling of the kidneys;
Sea buckthorn fly - the most dangerous pest for a plant, capable of destroying the entire crop. Flies fly out in the second half of June. Their larvae eat into the berries and destroy the pulp of the fruit, from which they wrinkle, darken and fall off.
Control measures. You can get rid of the sea buckthorn fly by treating the sea buckthorn in mid-July with a solution of Chlorophos;
Sea buckthorn aphid - a sucking insect that feeds on the sap of leaves and young shoots, settling on the underside of the leaf plate, which makes the sea buckthorn turn yellow, its leaves curl and fall off prematurely.
Control measures. If aphids proliferate, folk methods of struggle, such as processing with infusions of onion husks or garlic, tobacco leaves with laundry soap, may not give results, and you will have to resort to insecticides - treating sea buckthorn with a ten percent solution of Karbofos during the period of foliage blooming;
Sea buckthorn gall mite - a very small pest that sucks the juices from the young leaves of the plant, from which they swell, deform and fall off.
Control measures. With gall mites, the same methods of control are effective as with aphids.
In addition to the pests described, with insufficient care for the sea buckthorn, you may encounter other pests, but if you follow the agricultural practices of the culture, the diseases and pests of the sea buckthorn will bypass your garden.
There are only two types of sea buckthorn - sea buckthorn, which grows throughout Europe, and willow buckthorn, which grows in the south of Xinjiang in China, in the mountainous regions of India, Bhutan and Nepal.
It is a tree up to 15 m high with a trunk diameter of about 30 cm. The leaf blades of trees of this species are sharp, lanceolate, up to 8 cm long and up to 1.5 cm wide, whitish with red-brown venation. The fruit is a round yellow drupe up to 7 mm long.
We described it at the very beginning of the article. In our latitudes, varieties of this particular type of plant are grown. Sea buckthorn varieties are divided into Siberian and European, large-fruited and small-fruited, thorny and thornless, early, medium ripening and late. Siberian varieties are not adapted for cultivation in European countries, since they do not tolerate mild winters with thaws. And European varieties are not cold-resistant enough to grow in Siberia.
We offer you a description of the best known sea buckthorn varieties today.
These varieties include:
These varieties of sea buckthorn differ in that they become sweeter from frost and firmly adhere to the branches even after frost. The most popular late ripening varieties:
Not only sea buckthorn fruits have healing properties, but also its leaves and branches. Sea buckthorn contains oxalic, tartaric and malic organic acids, vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, K, E, carotene and carotenoids, flavonoids, manganese, boron and iron, tannins, phytoncides, oleic and linoleic fatty acids.
Sea buckthorn fruits contain serotonin, which is of great importance for the normal functioning of the human nervous system, as well as beta-sitosterol, which has an anti-sclerotic effect.A decoction of sea buckthorn berries is indicated for stomach and duodenal ulcers. Applying fresh berries treat frostbite, burns and abscesses. For men over forty years old, sea buckthorn berries are shown as a means of increasing potency.
The leaves and fruits of sea buckthorn remove oxalic and uric acid from the body, the infusion from the leaves of the plant is used in the treatment of gout, rheumatism and diabetes mellitus. A decoction of the leaves and branches of sea buckthorn is prescribed for disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Dry leaves are brewed like tea for scurvy symptoms.
But, perhaps, the most valuable product is sea buckthorn oil, which has the strongest bactericidal effect. It contains vitamin E, vitamin F, which regulates the metabolism of the skin, sterols, trace elements and minerals silicon, silver, copper, vanadium, nickel, manganese and cobalt. Apply oil both externally and internally. Its action increases the amount of protein in the liver, improves lipid metabolism, and stimulates regenerative processes in damaged tissues.
Sea buckthorn oil for chronic pharyngitis and laryngitis is used to lubricate the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, it is used for inhalation. Dermatologists recommend using sea buckthorn oil to enhance hair growth caused by certain skin conditions.
Preparations based on sea buckthorn oil can greatly improve the body's tolerance of anticancer drugs, and sometimes even enhance their therapeutic effect. To strengthen the immunity of the baby, nursing mothers are recommended to add a few drops of sea buckthorn oil to the baby's milk from one month of age.
Can there be harm from sea buckthorn? Since its berries are high in carotene, sea buckthorn can cause an allergic reaction in people with low immunity. Due to the presence of a large amount of acids in the berry, it is not recommended to use sea buckthorn for people suffering from liver disease, pancreatitis, cholecystitis and inflammation of the duodenum, especially if the disease is in the acute stage. A tendency to loose stools is also a contraindication. Since berries increase the acidity of urine, the use of sea buckthorn is not recommended for patients with urolithiasis. Sea buckthorn is also dangerous for those who suffer from its individual intolerance.
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Its flowers are similar to the large white pom-poms that adorn the garden in May and June. It is an old, hardy, undemanding variety of viburnum that is popular with gardeners. How to grow Kalina Buldenezh - planting and care in the open field, reproduction, photos in the garden - more on this below.
Coleus is a light and heat-loving plant that does not tolerate shade well, but at the same time, it burns out under the scorching rays of the spring and autumn sun. Therefore, in the garden, the place for planting Coleus should be chosen open, with minimal shading, and at home - on the east or west windowsill.
Coleuses love moisture, but not excessive waterlogging. With a lack of moisture, the leaves wither, become soft, sag. Plants should be watered abundantly with soft water (rain, melt).
Coleus propagate by seeds and cuttings. With seed propagation, the final varietal characteristics will be visible over time - Coleus seedlings have green leaves, like dioecious nettle or sage. Vegetative propagation of coleus is also simple - by rooting cuttings left over from the formative pruning of old plants.
It is customary to remove the flowers of Coleus so that they do not take away strength from the plants. There is little sense from them, and they spoil the appearance of plants pretty much.
Coleus grow quickly, they are not demanding on the composition of the soil, but it is better if the soil mixture is rich in nutrients. Fertile soil reduces the frequency of fertilizing with mineral and organic fertilizers, improves the growth and appearance of plants.
Coleus are fed once every 14 days with complex fertilizers for flowers, or with special fertilizers for decorative deciduous crops.
Honeysuckle Cubic zirconia is immune to diseases and pests. But if agricultural technology is not followed, the bush can hit the following ailments:
To prevent the disease from infecting neighboring crops, the bush is dug up and burned
Without treatment, the fungus quickly spreads to neighboring crops
When damaged by a pest, the berries are deformed
The drug "Malathion", which is used before flowering and after harvesting, will be able to help the bush.
Blackbirds - lovers of ripe berries
The most important thing is to provide the plant with timely watering, especially in summer during a drought. In order for the shrub to safely endure the winter, in the fall, before the onset of cold weather, it must be watered abundantly. In young specimens, the trunks should be well mulched with humus. In severe winters, shoots can freeze even in adult bushes, but this is not a reason to worry: the plant quickly recovers.
To obtain the most lush flowering, viburnum is fed in spring and summer with wood ash or complex fertilizer for ornamental plants. Fertilizer can be prepared by yourself. In the spring potassium (20 g), nitrogen (40 g) and phosphorus (30 g) are added - per 1 sq. M. And in mid-August - potassium (up to 40 g) and phosphorus (up to 20 g). On fertile soil, it is enough to add 1.5-2 buckets of compost under each bush once a year in spring.
At the blooming viburnum Buldenezh branches under the weight of the "snowballs" can tilt. To prevent the shoots from breaking, they are tied to supports. Broken branches can be used for cutting.
To maintain the attractive shape of the bush, annual pruning of the viburnum is equally important. Buldenezh... In the spring (before flowering), remove all damaged and dried, as well as weak branches that are directed to the center of the bush. After the end of flowering, the central part of the crown is thinned out and some lateral shoots are shortened. An adult shrub should have no more than 8 skeletal branches.
If necessary, in the summer, you can reduce the size of the entire bush. Since the end of August, viburnum is not cut off so that it has time to get stronger before the onset of cold weather.
If the shrub is not thinned out in a timely manner, dangerous pests of the viburnum can become active Buldenezh - aphids and viburnum leaf beetle. Aphid appears at the very beginning of flowering of this wonderful plant and inhabits the tops of young shoots and "snow balls". To combat aphids, drugs such as Iskra, Inta-Vir are used (according to the instructions). As a rule, 2-3 sprays with an interval of 10-12 days are sufficient.
To protect the bush from viburnum leaf beetle, wintering clutches, which are located mainly on the tops of the shoots, should be destroyed in the fall. In early spring, the upper tips of the branches are examined again. When dark tubercles of egg-laying are found, these parts of the shoots are cut off, burned and sprayed with the crown of the bush with Karbofos.