Every summer resident wants raspberries to give a bountiful harvest, and its berries are juicy and large. This requires time, effort, patience and hard work. And, of course, advice from experienced gardeners.
The first rule: for good growth of the bush, it is necessary to make a trellis. It can be ordinary, with a string stretched in rows between the posts. To do this, pegs are driven into a row at a distance of 70 cm from each other, and raspberries are planted along them, which are then tied up in several places.
The second option: a V-shaped trellis, at the top of which a horizontal bar is nailed. On each side, a wire is attached to it, going to the next post.
The tops of the raspberry stalks are then tied to this design on both sides. The method of planting raspberries on a trellis allows you to increase the yield by 5-6 times.
Raspberry bushes should not grow more than 30 cm wide, they are planted in narrow rows. There must be intervals between the plants so that the plants have enough sunlight.
Raspberries should not come across as wild and grow in all directions. The shoots sprouting between the rows are removed. The number of stems on one plant at the beginning of the season should not exceed 5-6 pieces. The soil under the bushes must be mulched.
Due to the peculiarities of the root system, raspberries form a large number of growths. It must be cut off so that the bush remains strong and bears fruit from top to bottom.
Trimming the excess growth allows the root system to better support the growth and development of the main bush. The shoots are destroyed with a pruner or a shovel at a distance of 3-5 cm from the ground.
The primary pruning is done during planting, the shoot height must be left 40-50 cm. After the plant takes root, seasonal pruning must be done regularly.
In the spring, at the beginning of April, when it is warm, but the soil has not yet warmed up enough, damaged and weak shoots are cut out. Usually 5 strong branches are left, which should be shortened to the first healthy bud.
The next pruning is summer: once every 2 weeks, it is necessary to cut off young shoots that go beyond the border of a narrow row. There should be no more than 8 pencil-thin shoots to replace. When they reach a height of 1 m, pinch the top by 5 cm.
Autumn pruning is done in late August or early September. During this period, it is necessary to remove excess replacement shoots, branches with hard bark and those that have already borne fruit. The bush must be tied so that it does not fall apart.
Raspberries respond very gratefully to the treatment with organic fertilizers. To do this, in the fall, one bucket of humus is introduced per square meter.
In the spring it is necessary to apply fertilizers containing nitrogen. This is done in late April or early May. First you need to water the plant. Then - in a garden 10-liter watering can, mix the extract from chicken manure, containing nitrogen, and humic fertilizer containing potassium. Dilute with water and water the root zone.
In addition to root dressings, foliar dressings are used. They must be alternated with each other. Once a season, it is necessary to spray the bush from above with microbiological preparations and water it at the root.
When summer varieties of raspberries bloom, they should be fed with organic matter, for example, Sapropel, once every 10 days. It must be diluted in a bucket of water in the proportion indicated on the package. This will increase the fertility of the soil.
After the plant stops bearing fruit, root top dressing is applied, consisting of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. In liquid form, they are mixed in a 10-liter watering can with the addition of ash. Nitrogen fertilizers are added 2 times less than the norm.
Biological fungicides are also added to the listed products to prevent plant diseases. With this composition, it is necessary to water the bushes at the root 2 times a month. Correct feeding of plants leads to an increase in yield by 1.5-2 times.
As soon as buds appear on raspberries, it is necessary to prevent diseases from the fungus. To do this, in the evening, the plant is sprayed with a biological fungicide.
If caterpillars appear on the bush, then a bioinsecticide, Fitoverm, is added to the solution with the fungicide. Also for these purposes, you can use a tincture of bitter herbs, mustard powder.
A solution of conifers helps well from the May beetle. It should be remembered that the yield in the next depends on how the care was in the current season.
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The experiment started with cucumbers. Divided the seeds into 2 parts. He put one in the refrigerator, and kept the other in the room. In the spring, before sowing, he warmed up the indoor seeds, took the batch out of the refrigerator and sowed it (without germination). The warmed-up seeds emerged 2 days earlier than those stored in the cold, and quickly began to grow.
By the beginning of flowering, it turned out that plants from "cold" seeds laid the first flowers exclusively for women - with a "cucumber", and plants from seeds that had undergone heating, first formed only male flowers - barren flowers.
Thus, in plants with female flowers, if there were no plants with male flowers nearby, pollination would not have occurred. In the future, flowering evened out, both female and male flowers appeared on all plants, but cucumbers from heated seeds gave fewer fruits, although they bloomed profusely (there were more male flowers).
Now I grow cucumbers from "cold" seeds, but I always plant one plant from a heated seed nearby.
When cold treating the seeds of carrots and beets, I discovered that single plants appeared from them, throwing out the flower arrow. The root crop of such a plant will not be eaten - dry, woody. Previously, I generally did not notice that beets in the 1st year of sowing went into the arrow, while carrots sometimes had such plants during winter sowing. Root crops grown from "cold" seeds seemed to me tougher than those that were obtained from "warm" ones. I no longer store root vegetable seeds in the refrigerator.
Raspberry is photophilous, but does not like extreme heat. The soil on the site should be clay-sandy, moderately moist, but not heavy, with neutral acidity. For landing, it is better to choose a place protected from the wind, on flat areas or gentle southern slopes.
It is necessary to plant bush raspberries in the fall, from late September to mid-October.
There are three main planting methods:
Raspberries can be propagated both in spring and in autumn, but autumn transplantation is undesirable for bush varieties.
If the bush raspberries are quite old, then they need to be transplanted. To do this, the bush is completely dug up, the old lignified shoots are cut off, leaving about 20 cm.The roots of the bush are carefully divided and planted in pre-prepared pits, 40 cm wide and 30 cm deep. Young seedlings are watered, the soil is mulched.
Cuttings about 15 cm long are cut from young shoots of basal shoots, the lower leaves are cut off and the upper part is removed. The cuttings are soaked in Kornevin's solution and wrapped in moist moss for rooting. As soon as the roots appear, the seedlings are planted in the garden. It is better to carry out the procedure in early June.
Lignified shoots are pruned in the fall, at the end of October, divided into several cuttings 10 cm long and stored in a cool place until spring. In early spring, the cuttings are placed in cups with a mixture of peat and sand, and when they take root, they are planted in open ground.
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The culprit of this pathology is a fungus. The disease is terrible because in a very short time it is capable of affecting the entire berry. The development of gray rot is facilitated by high humidity, which is necessary for the growth of the mycelium of the fungus. Spores, picked up by a strong wind, spread to neighboring plants and even end up in neighboring areas.
Of the measures for the active protection of plants from fungal diseases, it is recommended to remove and burn heavily affected leaves and sprinkle with universal fungicides (1-2% solution of Bordeaux liquid, topaz, topsin).
You can also treat the bushes with the following remedy: chalk (1 tbsp.) + Copper sulfate (1 tsp) + ash (1 tbsp.) + H2O (10 l). A solution with so many ingredients is designed for three squares. In case of severe damage, you can use phytosporin-M or Bordeaux mixture.
Given the difficulties in combating gray mold, protective measures should be taken, including appropriate fertilization.
One of the common diseases of garden strawberry is Powdery Mildew, in which the ground part of the plant is covered with a whitish-transparent coating.
To get rid of powdery mildew, strawberries need to be processed several times per season. Spray for the first time in spring, a week before flowering. The second time is after flowering. In case of severe infection of plants - again, after harvest.
The first processing of strawberries can be carried out with copper sulfate (to prepare a solution in a bucket of water with a volume of 10 liters, dilute 20 g of copper sulfate and 1 tablespoon of grated laundry soap). The second treatment is with fungicides, you can use "Topaz".
Brown spotting. Strawberries are attacked by the fungus Marssonina potentila (synonym for Diplocarpon earliana), which causes a common disease - brown leaf spot. The disease is more harmful than white spot of strawberry leaves, leading to severe damage to the leaves, inhibition of their growth, mass death (before or during harvest), which contributes to a decrease in yield and deterioration of fruit quality.
Some fungicides used to combat gray mold also limit the intensity of brown blight on strawberry leaves. A good effect is given by preventive spraying with Bordeaux liquid 1%.
White leaf spot. A common disease that significantly reduces yields and degrades the quality of berries
To reduce the number of chemical treatments, you need to buy healthy starting material of less susceptible varieties. Mowing and collecting infected leaves after harvest is also important. The hibernating infection is destroyed by eradication spraying with Bordeaux liquid (2-3%). It is also possible to sprinkle with 1% Bordeaux liquid or copper oxychloride, cuproxate three times: in the phase of exposing strawberry buds 10 days after flowering, after harvesting.