Hawthorn is a perennial shrub that is ideal for hedging. Many summer residents and gardeners strive to grow such a decorative natural fence. She has not only natural beauty, but also serves as a reliable barrier for uninvited guests, and also saves material resources. It is no secret that building materials that would have to be purchased to build a fence are not cheap. In addition, a hawthorn hedge will provide ecological cleanliness on your site.
The melliferous shrub culture belongs to the Rose family. The multi-stemmed hawthorn has the ability to grow in regions with almost any climate. It tolerates drought and frost well. The height of the shrub can reach eight meters. Culture lends itself well to a haircut, from it you can create a variety of sculptural forms and embody unusual artistic fantasies. The hawthorn hedge, thanks to the presence of thorns, protects the territory from unpleasant visitors.
On summer cottages and household plots, various types and varieties of hawthorn feel favorable: "Black", "Gladky ordinary", "Siberian", "Fan-shaped". In order to create a reliable and beautiful hedge out of hawthorn on your own, you need to go through three main stages: planting seedlings, formative pruning and maintenance, including the obligatory decorative haircut.
In order for the hawthorn to take root well in a new place, it is necessary to purchase seedlings of three years old for planting. They easily adapt to new conditions compared to adult specimens. With regular pruning, you can achieve the desired result in the size and configuration of plants, as well as form the intended natural composition. With proper care, a hedge at the age of 20 will reach two meters in height.
A fence made of hawthorn bushes will be dense if trellises are built between the seedlings, and planting is carried out in two rows or in a checkerboard pattern. Such a design will support the plants and promote their fusion with each other, which will make the hedge thick and, when growing, it will reach a width of about 1 m.However, it must be borne in mind that such dense thickets of shrubs are an excellent habitat for pests and pathogens. Therefore, it is advisable to grow young plants in such a way that the width of the hedge does not exceed seventy centimeters.
Hawthorn has no special requirements for the composition of the soil. It can grow both in heavy loamy areas and in areas with low nutrient soil. Nevertheless, when planting seedlings, it is recommended to take care of a special soil mixture, which will have a beneficial effect on the growth and development of young crops and accelerate the process of getting used to a new habitat. The composition of such a mixture should include: turf and leaf land in equal amounts, peat and sand.
When planting shrubs in one row - the width of the planting trench is 50 cm, and for two rows of seedlings a width of 1 m is required.The distance between the young bushes is 0.5 m.It is necessary to fill the prepared soil mixture into the trench and plant crops, leaving a hole around each seedling for retention of irrigation water and natural precipitation.
Watering should be carried out systematically, especially in the first year of the seedling's life in a new place. It is enough to water the plants once a week. The holes around the seedlings (which will retain water) will provide the hawthorn with the necessary moisture, which is very important for the development and survival of the root system.
The first feeding of plants is carried out only the next year. Fertilizers with nitrogen content are ideal. In summer, a mixture of superphosphate, potassium salt and ammonium sulfate is recommended as a second feeding.
The area near the hawthorn plantations must be regularly loosened and freed from the emerging weeds, and in autumn it must be dug up completely along the seedlings.
Three years after planting, a formative pruning is recommended on the seedling site. Young shrubs must be cut off completely, leaving only small hemp. During this time, the trunk reaches about 1.5-2 cm in diameter. This procedure is necessary for the start of active tillering of plants. Instead of a trimmed trunk, many young shoots will appear during the year, which will begin to form a dense crown and become the basis of a hedge in the future. The optimal time for pruning is April-May.
After a year, it is recommended to carry out the first shearing of young branches that extend beyond the main part of the shrub. This procedure is carried out throughout the growing season. Use pruning shears or regular garden shears as tools. First of all, you need to cut off those branches that significantly protrude beyond the crown, and then the entire bush is trimmed as a whole.
With regular shearing, the shrub after a certain time will reach the desired size - about 60-70 cm in width and about 1.5 m in height. From this moment on, systematic pruning should be carried out at the same height, saving the plant from young branches overgrowing the required limits. By the way, hawthorn bushes with constant pruning will not bloom and bear fruit.
With a great desire, creative imagination and imagination from the hedge, you can create unusual single forms and whole compositions. These can be various geometric shapes (rounded or pointed), and with a lot of talent, you can make sculptures of animals and people.
Top dressing must be applied in spring, summer and autumn. In the first three years after planting, a mixture of humus, peat and compost is introduced into the soil in equal proportions. Usually a bucket of such a mixture is enough for 1 square meter of land. Mineral fertilizers are rarely applied and in small quantities in granular form.
After the crops reach three years of age, the fertilization scheme changes slightly. In the autumn, before digging up the land, and in the spring, before loosening the soil, it is necessary to apply organic fertilizers. To do this, mix in equal parts humus, compost and peat. Also, in the spring months, the bushes are fed with nitrogen-containing preparations, and in the summer (about mid-July) - with phosphorus-potassium preparations.
Pruning should be done regularly throughout the growing season. The last pruning is done in the middle of summer. The optimal cut sizes of shoots are 30-50% of the total length.
For irrigation, you need to use only warm water and bring it into the soil only in the root space. The area of soil around the trunk should be constantly moist, as the hawthorn loves water very much. It is recommended to irrigate regularly in the evening.
It consists in frequent loosening of the soil, timely weeding and mulching. In order for young crops not to become bare over time in the lower part of the shrub, it is necessary to create favorable conditions for them. The full and active development of hawthorn is possible only with nutritious soil, sufficient lighting, proper watering and timely cutting.
It takes a little skill, persistence, time and, of course, patience to create an environmentally friendly and beautiful natural hawthorn fence.
Hawthorn. Features of planting and care
The versatility of a hedge tempts many gardeners to get one. The threefold benefits of this landscape element are obvious: savings in building materials, high decorative value, and environmental friendliness. But can a hedge better protect a site than a concrete fence?
A hawthorn hedge combines the listed qualities. In addition, mature bushes bear fruit abundantly. Hawthorn berries are delicious and healthy. Jam and compotes are made from them. The mineralogical composition of hawthorn fruit improves blood circulation, has a positive effect on cardiac activity.
Hawthorn thorns will reliably protect the site from uninvited guests. The deep penetration of the root system and the strength of the trunks of this amazing tree are the key to the durability of the hedges. Known hawthorn plantings, which are 300 years old. Another reason why hawthorn is recommended as a hedge is its frost resistance and unpretentiousness to soils. While sunny locations are best for hedges, hawthorns can thrive in partial shade.
Among the 1200 species of hawthorn, the most popular are the fan-shaped hawthorn (with curved thorns), the common hawthorn smooth (with reddish branches), the blood-red Siberian hawthorn (with ovoid leaves), the soft hawthorn (with long, up to 9 cm, thorns), single-pistil small, fruits - single-celled, fleshy), black hawthorn (with black fruits) and terrible hawthorn, so named for its long thorns and white fruits. Any of the listed types are suitable for creating a hedge.
The process of creating a "living wall" from hawthorn consists of planting, forming pruning and haircuts. Saplings at the age of 2 - 3 years are transplanted to a permanent place, bush and adjusted by cutting, bringing them to the desired parameters. A hawthorn hedge can reach 2 meters in height at 20 years of age.
The densest hedges are grown on trellises by splicing the branches of adjacent bushes. Trellis hedges are thinner than usual - up to 40 cm - in thickness, but with a two-row planting they can reach a width of 1 m. But in excessively thick "walls" fungal diseases start. A thickness of 70 - 75 cm is considered optimal.
Hawthorn grows successfully on lean and clayey soils. But for young seedlings, a trench 60 cm deep should be prepared, filled with sand, peat, leaf compost and turf soil in a ratio of 1: 1: 1: 1. The trees are planted at a distance of half a meter. With a two-row planting, a trench is dug up to a width of 1 m. The hawthorn is placed in a checkerboard pattern. The distance between future bushes is the same as in the first case.
In the first year, the hedge is watered at least once a week. A year later, in the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are applied and loosened.
In July, fertilize with ammonium sulfate, superphosphate, potassium salt (30 g / m² area), weed weeds, dig up the soil along the planting for the winter.
A year later, the seedlings are cut "under the stump". This pruning is done to get the trees to bush. It is performed in April-May, when new shoots will grow into 2-3 buds. The periosteal bud is retained, and the last year and new growth is removed. Over the summer, the seedling will grow overgrown with new shoots, which will later become the skeleton of a hedge.
There are two patterns of splicing branches of adjacent bushes. The first is with rectangular cells. With this pattern, in July, remove all lateral and upward shoots, but leave two horizontal ones. The bush is like the letter "T". Horizontal shoots close into a common chain.
In order for the shoots to grow together into a single whole, the bark is cut at the edges, the places of the cuts are placed on top of each other, tied with a linen cloth and tightly fixed with an insulating tape. You can use the drug heteroauxin. In the spliced areas, lubricated with heteroauxin, moisture will remain longer without the threat of infection with tree mold. Honey is used for the same purpose.
The second method is similar to the first, but with the difference that new shoots start at an angle of 45 °. At the points of crossing, the bark is removed from the shoots and spliced in the same way as in the first case. The drawing of such a trellis is diagonal-rhombic. This method is convenient in that you can use longer shoots, splicing them in 2 - 3 places in one step. However, not all varieties of hawthorn give suitable long bends in the spring rutting season.
In July-August, the hedge is leveled with a cord and stakes. Young growth on top and sides is cut off.
Further care is reduced to digging the soil in the spring, mulching and fertilizing. The branches are spliced every year until the hedge reaches the required height. Three shaping haircuts are recommended throughout the summer season. Each time, at least one lateral bud or one shoot is left - in the first haircut. The distance from the kidney to the cut site is 3 cm. The cut angle is 45 °.
By the age of ten, a hawthorn hedge forms a solid wall. At the latitude of St. Petersburg, the density of hedges is not always uniform. To eliminate this disadvantage, redirecting a long summer escape to a discharged place is used. In the same way, the effect of "bare feet" is eliminated (the view of a rising crown with an exposure of the trunk near the ground does not always suit gardeners). Ground gaps are eliminated as described above.
It should be noted that the leaves of the hedge from direct contact with the ground become a carrier of fungal diseases. In areas with a damp climate, near river beds with thick morning fog, some elevation of the hedge green mass layer above ground level is recommended. The gap can be hidden by flowering herbs.
Hawthorn seedlings are easy to grow in a greenhouse. In early spring, shoots "with a leg" are split off from an adult tree and grown in a mixture of peat, leaf soil and wood ash. A hole with a branch is watered every day throughout the summer. A new shoot develops above the cut from the upper bud, which will later become the trunk of a new tree. A donor tree without lateral branches is healed with garden var. Its high trunk with an umbrella crown will become an original decoration of the garden.
The decorativeness of the hawthorn hedge is year-round. In spring, hawthorn blooms with pink-white dense small flowers, similar to apple blossom. In summer it pleases with small leaves shining in the sun. In autumn it turns yellow not evenly: it ripples with green, yellow and pink. In winter it attracts with scarlet fruits of titmouses and bullfinches.
To separate borders and shelter from prying eyes, it is not necessary to put up huge fences, a hedge will be enough, the plants for which may be different, for example, hawthorn is beautiful and practical. Due to the density of the crown and thorny needles, the fence becomes inaccessible to animals, as well as to humans. On top of that, a hedge isolates sounds, cleans the air of dust and smog, and is relatively inexpensive. With good care, a hawthorn hedge will delight you for more than a dozen years, the only thing is that it needs to be cut periodically, but what shape you give your fence is up to you. These shrubs feel great in any conditions and at any time of the year, they are very frost and drought resistant, but, of course, it is better to give preference to a sunny place. Hawthorn escapes last for about 150 years.
It is better to start planting a hawthorn hedge in spring or early autumn, so that the plant has the opportunity to take root and adapt, choosing 2-3-year-old seedlings for this. It is necessary to pre-prepare the soil, dig a trench, make drainage, fertilize the soil with complex fertilizer (for example, humus, leafy soil, peat compost, sand (2: 2: 1: 1)) and moisten. After that, the shrubs are carefully lowered into the prepared trench and covered with soil. The distance between hawthorn seedlings when planting a hedge in one row should be up to half a meter, if you have planned a two-row hedge - up to 70 centimeters. After you have finished planting, water the plant abundantly, and then cover the ground with sawdust or dry grass. In order for the plant to take root, it is necessary to care for it, water it and cut it off.
The most important thing is not to miss the moment of trimming the hedge - this is the first two years, then they do not grow in height so quickly, and root growths are abundantly formed in them. You need to cut off young shoots in the spring, at a distance of no more than 10 cm from the ground, repeat every year until you are satisfied with the density of the resulting bush. After establishing the density, the plant will only need cosmetic pruning to maintain its aesthetic appearance. The haircut is done with pruning shears or electric shears, and you can pull the thread to evenly cut the hair.
Due to the fact that the plants in the hedge are located with a small interval, the roots fight among themselves for food, so the land needs to be fertilized (kemira-wagon (120 g / m2) or nitroammofosk), and in drought it should be watered about 1-2 times a month, spending up to 10 liters of water per bush. If the weather is rainy enough, then additional care is not required for the hawthorn. Maintaining a hedge is painstaking work, but if you want to achieve a beautiful appearance, then it will be worth it. It is also periodically necessary to loosen the soil by driving the shovel 10 cm into the ground.
One of the options for a hedge, for which a hawthorn is the best suited is a trellis hedge. Its essence lies in the interweaving of shoots planted according to the 20x30 cm scheme and attaching them to the installed rails - trellises. One is done in this way: after planting the seedlings in the first year, pruning is carried out under a stump at a height of 10 cm, after which the plant will give new fast-growing shoots, of which you need to choose the 2 strongest and tilt them at an angle of 45 degrees, attaching them to the trellis. In places where the branches touch, you can peel off the bark from them and wrap them with a film for accretion. The next year, carry out the same procedure, but at a higher level. Of course, this is painstaking work, but the result is a solid and beautiful hedge.
3 years after planting in the country, young seedlings are cut, leaving a small stump. By this time, the diameter of the trunk at the very base should reach 1.5-2 cm. This formative pruning stimulates the tillering of plants. From a single-stemmed seedling, you can get a multi-stemmed shrub with a compacted crown. Pruning is carried out in the middle or late spring, during the period of stretching the buds. In the process of cutting, the near-stem bud is left, cutting off the new and last year's growth.
During the summer, the plant should release many young branches, which will later become the skeleton of the future hedge. The bushes are given the opportunity to grow in any form for another year.
Then the first haircut is carried out, which is based on the pinching of young branches protruding beyond the established limits of the hedge.
The pinching procedure is carried out throughout the growing season using sharp scissors or pruning shears.
The formation of the edges of the hedge with your own hands is carried out a year after the first pruning. The build-up of its section is carried out gradually, without going beyond the boundaries of the contours. First, the protruding branches are cut, then the entire bush is sheared. As soon as the plant reaches the required height - about 1.5 m, and width - 0.6-0.7 cm, shearing is carried out at the same height, avoiding overgrowth.
You can make the most unusual sculpture with your own hands from a hedge. This is a whole art. But it is worth remembering that in this form the plants do not bloom and do not bear fruit.
The ideal is a hawthorn hedge in the shape of an isosceles trapezoid. Following the natural growth of the bushes, the "living wall" should taper slightly towards the top.
The hawthorn haircut with a smoothly rounded shape has become very popular. Such a wall will look natural. It does not require the creation of even and accurate geometric contours, although it is more difficult to create than other shapes.
The first two years after planting, the plants are not pruned. They begin to form the bushes by means of hemp, when the trunk diameter at the roots will be 1.5-2 cm. For this, in the fall, the trunks are cut off at a height of 20-25 cm from the ground. Below the cut level, new buds appear in spring, from which a multi-stemmed tree is formed. Within a year after hemping, the bushes are not pruned, allowing the hawthorn to grow freely.
The first haircut is carried out one year after hemp... Prune the offshoots that branches outside the hedge with pruning shears. The next day, they begin to form the crown of a green fence. Initially, they outline the line of future faces, gradually increasing the section. It is recommended to form a crown in the form of a trapezoid, tapering upwards. The top of the crown should be 15 cm narrower than the bottom. This shape allows you to preserve the lower branches, which can be exposed if there is not enough light. It should be remembered that after such pruning, plants practically do not bloom. The height of the hedge is kept at the same level.
In the future, branches are cut that violate the shape of the hedge along the sides and height. It is recommended to smoothly round the edges over time, such a fence will look more natural. After the formation of the crown, the plants need watering and fertilizing. Can be used compost, peat and humus in equal proportions... The soil on both sides of the planting is periodically loosened.
In the third year, the bushes are fed in the following order: in the spring - nitrogen, in the fall - phosphorus-potassium. Organics are fed only in the autumn period. Correct the haircut systematically 2-3 times per season, cutting off the branches by 2/3 of their regrown part. The overgrowth of the hedge should not be allowed - it is fraught with exposure of the lower branches and loss of decorative appearance. The crown can become bare with a lack of feeding and shading of the hedge by trees and buildings. If you need to transplant part of the bushes, they are planted only in the fall.
It is very important to choose plants that fully satisfy the needs presented by the ideas of the designers. First of all, you need to pay attention to the height of the plants, which they can reach. If the hedge is in place of the main fence, then plants that can grow up to 2.5 - 3 meters will be required. If shrubs are planted in gardens to decorate and divide the territory, then plants with a height of up to 1 meter can be used.
Hawthorn is considered the ideal shrub to create a hedge. Hawthorn hedges are the hallmark of England. It is this plant that allows you to create a laconic and well-groomed hedge that will be unpretentious in care. To understand whether a hawthorn is suitable for a project, you should familiarize yourself with its main characteristics.
In winter, the hedge should not lose the plants from freezing, damping or breakage. To do this, in winter, sprinkle with snow, at least, its base. In late autumn, the soil under the shrubs is either mulched, or insulated and protects the aboveground part, or they combine these options.
Young conifers in winter and spring can get sunburn. Spruce Koniku and some other conifers harbor even in adulthood. Tall trees do not need to be protected from sunburn. And the appearance of brown needles for many is a normal seasonal phenomenon.
One of the ways of shelter is to create tunnels from any suitable auxiliary means: strong greenhouse arcs, connected wooden boxes or slats. Frames are firmly knocked together, and then covered with a dense non-woven fabric or other material.