Crinum flaccidum photographs


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Pennisetum flaccidum

Bohuћel k tomuto druhu ћбdnй podrobnмjљн informace nemбm. Dokбћete-li nминm pшispмt, zaљlete mi prosнm informace na:. Dмkuji.

Nepodaшilo se mi zнskat fotografii. Mбte-li nмjakou k dispozici a nenн chrбnмna autorskэm prбvem, prosнm or zaslбnн na:. Dмkuji.

Popis rodu Pennisetum

Pochбzн z tropickэch a teplэch ибstн svмta. Roste v trsech. Dorщstб vэљky 1 - 4m.

Potшebuje plnй slunce, pщdu bohatou na ћiviny s dobrou nasбkavostн vody.

Vнce informacн zнskбte, pokud si zobrazнte celэ rod rostliny.

Popis иeledм Poaceae (Lipnicovitй)

Шadн se sem na 400 rodщ s cca 10 000 druhy. Pokud se rozhlйdnete kolem sebe, tak vљude spatшнte zбstupce tйto иeledi. Patшн sem totiћ vљechny trбvy (vиetnм obilovin to pнcnin). Sami dobшe uhodnete, ћe sem tedy budou patшit jednoletky, dvouletky i trvalky a ћe se jednб or byliny a jednodomй rostliny. Dбle sem patшн ale i dшeviny typu bambus a obиas i liбny. Dнky univerzбlnosti zбstupce nalezenete na celй zemi a to i v tйmмr vљech vэљkovэch pбsmech a mнstech. Rбdi se shlukujн do trsщ. Existujн nбsledujнcн podиeledi:

  • Anomochlooideae
  • Aristidoideae
  • Arundinoideae
  • Bambusoideae
  • Centothecoideae
  • Danthonioideae
  • Ehrhartoideae
  • Chloridoideae
  • Micrairoideae
  • Panicoideae
  • Pharoideae
  • Pooideae
  • Puelioideae

Rostlinu vмtљinou tvoшн dutй stйblo s kolйnky. Pod zemн vytvбшн obvykle tenkй koшнnky ve svazeиcнch. Listy jsou vмtљinou bez шapнku, jsou jednoduchй ибrkovitм nebo ъzce kopinatм tvarovanй, obиas ostшe prohnutй podle stшednн ћilky (ћilnatina je soubмћnщћ ilnatina je soubмћnщћ), umнstшнn p Kvмty bэvajн oboupohlavnй, neиastмji seskupenй do klбskщ (obdaшenэch na spodnн stranм dvмmi plevami). Ty zase jsou seskupenй ve staћenй latм. Nejиastмjљнm plodem je obilka a dбle tшeba naћka nebo bobule i oшнљek.

Dalљн informace, zdroje a doporuиenб listing:

  • Vermeulen, N. Byliny to koшenн. 3. vydбnн. Pшel. PhDr. P. Martнnkovб. Иestlice: Rebo Productions CZ, spol. s r. o., 2008. 320 s. ISBN 978-80-7234-664-6
  • Hlava, B., Tбborskэ, V., Valниek, P. Tropickй to subtropickй zeleniny - pмstovбnн to vyuћitн. Praha: Nakladatelstvн Brбzda, s. r. o., 1998. 172 s. ISBN 80-209-0274-0
  • Aichele, D., M. Golte-Bechtle. Co tu kvete? Kvetoucн rostliny stшednн Evropy ve volnй pшнrodм. Pшel. H. Janбиkovб. Praha: Euromedia Group, k. s., 2005. 430 s. ISBN 80-7202-808-1
  • Noordhuis, K. T. Zahradnн rostliny. 4. vydбnн. Pшel. Ing. M. Volf, CSc. Иestlice: Rebo Productions CZ, spol. s r. o., 2006. 320 s. ISBN 80-7234-567-2
  • Kubбt, K. Klни ke kvмtenм Иeskй republiky. 1. vydбnн. Praha: Academia nakladatelstvн Akademie vмd Иeskй republiky, 2002. 927 s. ISBN 80-200-0836-5
  • kolektiv autorщ Botanika. Slovart, 2007. 1020 s. ISBN 978-80-7209-936-8
  • Vбcelav Zelenэ Rostliny Stшedozemн. 2. vydбnн. Praha: Academia, 2012. 510 s. ISBN 978-80-200-2088-8
  • http://www.efloras.org/


Natal Lily, Moore's Crinum Lily, Lily of the Orinoco

Crinum moorei (Natal Lily) is an elegant bulbous perennial boasting nodding clusters of large, fragrant, bell-shaped, white flowers, sometimes tinged light pink. Blooming in succession from late summer to fall, the eye-catching blossoms rise well above a rosette of long, wavy-edged, bright green leaves, up to 3 ft. long (90 cm). One flowering stalk can bear up to 5-10 blossoms. One of the finest of all late summer bulbs, this Lily will increase in size and magnificence year after year.

  • Grows up to 2-3 ft. tall and wide (60-90cm).
  • Performs best in full sun in moist, humus-rich, fertile, well-drained soil. Best growth occurs in full sun, but some dappled shade is appreciated during the heat of the day in hot summer areas. Intolerant of waterlogging. Resents being disturbed.
  • Excellent addition to beds and borders, containers.
  • Reliable, easy to grow, generally disease and pest free. However, watch out for slugs and snails.
  • Propagate by seed sown in containers with bottom heat when ripe or by offsets in spring.
  • Native to South Africa.
  • Ingestion may cause mild stomach upset


Name Status Confidence level Source Date supplied
Amaryllis australasica Ker Gawl. Synonym WCSP 2012-03-23
Amaryllis australis Spreng. [Illegitimate] Synonym WCSP 2012-03-23
Amaryllis flabby Weinm. Synonym WCSP 2012-03-23
Crinum angustifolium var. blandum (Sweet) Baker Synonym WCSP 2012-03-23
Crinum arenarium var. blandum Sweet Synonym WCSP 2012-03-23
Crinum corynorrhizum F. Muell. Synonym WCSP 2012-03-23
Crinum luteolum Traub & L.S. Hannibal Synonym WCSP 2012-03-23
Crinum pestilentis F.M.Bailey Synonym WCSP 2012-03-23
Crinum pestilentis var. luteolum (Traub & L.S. Hannibal) Hannibal Synonym WCSP 2012-03-23
Crinum weinmannii M.Roem. Synonym WCSP 2012-03-23
Taenais australasiae (Ker Gawl.) Salisb. [Invalid] Synonym WCSP 2012-03-23

The following databases may contain further information on this name. Please click on any button to follow a link to that database.

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Obrazový opravník obecně oblíbených omylů 4 .: Kustovnice

Rod kustovnice (Lycium) není třeba nijak zvlášť představovat. Čítá celkově nějakých 100 druhů s center rozšíření v Jižní Americe a druhotným center v pustinách Střední Asie a Číny (v Číně roste 7 druhů).

Jako první použil jméno Lycium barbarum už botanik Carl Linné v díle Species Plantarum v roce 1753. Druhý jeho popis následoval v reedici v roce 1762. Pak přišel popis Philipa Millera z roku 1768. Další byl Lamarckův popis Lycium barbarum z roku 1792.
C. Linné to P. Miller pod stejným jménem však popisují různé rostliny. Miller původní Linného rostlinu L. barbarum popisuje pod jménem L. halimifolium. K záměně došlo snad proto, že Linné omylem udal původ druhu ze severní Afriky to Blízkého východu.
Při pohledu na typovou položku je však vše jasné. L. barbarum je opravdu ten druh, který se u nás pěstuje a běžně zplaňuje. Millerova záměna jmen se však stále traduje, a to i v naší literatuře - z dřívějších prací např. V. Jirásek et al .: Naše jedovaté rostliny, z novějších J. Koblížek: Jehličnaté to listnaté dřeviny našich zahrad to parků.

Přehled rostlin, které se mohou skrývat pod jménem Lycium barbarum:

Lycium shawii Roem. et Schult. (1819)
(syn .: Lycium barbarum Mill. )
Větve přímé, jen v horní části mírně dolu prohnuté. Větve s výraznými kolci. Listy sivé, tučné. Květy bílé či růžové, korunní trubka cca 3–4 × delší než kalich, tyčinky vyčnívají z trubky ven, na bázi jsou lysé. Subtropický pustinný druh rostoucí na Blízkém východě (Izrael, Jordánsko, Sýrie, Irán, Irák).
Na internetu najdete správné photos tohoto druhu například zde.

Lycium barbarum L. (1753) - kustovnice cizí
(syn .: Lycium halimifolium Mill., L. vulgare Dun., L. flaccidum K. Koch)
Výběžkatý keř s obloukovitě prohnutými větvemi. Listy jsou jednoduché střídavé, sivé, variabilního tvaru. Kalich má dva cípy, dosahuje minimálně do 2/3 délky korunní trubky. Tyčinky jsou na bázi chlupaté.
Druh s obrovským areálem zahrnujícím Středomoří, teplejší oblasti Sibiře, Střední Asii, Mongolsko a severozápadní Čínu, zde pouze provincii Ningxia (Ning-sia, Chuejská autonomn čudíní oblast) ning xia gou qi. Ve střední Evropě zplanělý. Podle některých autorů je původní pouze ve Středomoří a na zbývající části areálu zdomácnělý, podle jiných je domácí ve Střední Asii a zdomácnělý naopak ve Středomoří. Protože se jedná o dlouho pěstovanou kulturní rostlinu, je její původní areál nejistý. Občas v naší literatuře je tento druh uváděn jako jedovatý. To je dáno tím, že patří do jeduplné čeledi lilkovitých (withanolidy, pyrrolové deriváty a tropanové alkaloidy).

Lycium chinense Mill. (1768) - kustovnice čínská
(syn .: Lycium barbarum var. chinense (Miller) Aiton, L. megistocarpum Dunal var. ovatum (Poiret) Dunal, L. ovatum Poiret, L. rhombifolium Dippel, L. sinense Grenier, L. trewianum Roemer & Schultes, Lycium barbarum Lam.)
Kustovnice čínská se od předcházejícího druhu liší kalichem minimálně trojcípým, korunní cípy jsou na okrajích pýřité. Listy jsou zelené a obvykle širší. L. chinense bylo považováno za varietu či poddruh Lycium barbarum, Lamarckův popis L. barbarum z roku 1792 se nejspíše vztahuje k tomuto druhu. Dodnes jsou v některé dendrologické literatuře (Hillier Manual of Trees and Shrubs) oba druhy spojovány. Je možné, že kustovnice čínská je ustálená kulturní form či hybrid kustovnice cizí.
Kustovnice čínská je rozšířená v Číně, Nepálu, Pákistánu, Koreji in Japonsku, na části areálu však může být zplanělá.
L. chinense se pěstuje ve velkém v Číně a dalších státech východní Asie jako léčivá a ovocná rostlina, její pěstování je známé z literárních údajů již od 7. století. Nejčastěji se používají plody jako tonikum, pojídají se i mladé zelené výhony jako zelenina. Kořeny slouží jako drug ke snižování teploty. Ze semen se lisuje olej. Rostliny se vysazují i ​​jako meliorační porosty bránící erozi půdy. Čínský název zní gou qi (goji).

Na závěr ještě dodejme:
U nás hojně rozšířenou kustovnici není možné ztotožňovat s východoasijskou kustovnicí, ze které se získávají takzvané plody goji.


Crinum

Crinum is a large genus in the Amaryllidaceae family found in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions in Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas. Most of the species are summer growers and have large, showy, fragrant flowers. The bulbs are large and long lived. Rachel Saunders and Jim Waddick gave some good advice on how to grow Crinum from seeds. Seeds should be sown in a well-drained mix. Make a small depression in the potting soil and place the seeds in the depression. Do not cover the seeds. It doesn't matter which way you plant them, they will sort themselves out. Seeds will germinate will with warm temperature, high humidity, and good contact with the soil. Keep the pot constantly moist. Fresh seeds germinate fast and grow to a good size in one year. With routine fertilization, the seedlings will mature quickly and will need to be repotted. Planting the seeds in a large container will reduce the number of repottings. Another resource for this genus is Al Sisk's web page

xAmarcrinum is our wiki page with pictures of hybrids between Amaryllis and Crinum.
Spodoptera picta is a serious pest for this genus in Australia.
Crinum Hybrids is our wiki page with information about hybridizing and a photo table with links to information and photos of hybrids.

For more photos and information about the species select the appropriate wiki page:


Crinum flaccidum photographs

A Rare plant in Victoria that is common elsewhere

Crinum flaccidum is lily of floodplains of the Murray-Darling Basin. It has fleshy, strap-like leaves and large white flowers - the largest of all Victorian plants. It is known in Victoria from only seven locations near the Murray River in the far north-west. All sites, whether within conservation reserves or not, are highly disturbed and support populations of non-native species that constitute more than a third of the local flora.

The Victorian classification of vulnerable is a fairly obvious one given the above data, but Crinum is not classified as rare or threatened anywhere else because it is one of the most widespread plant species in the country. Crinum is found in floodplain country in South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory and its broad geographic range covers more than 50% of the area of ​​these states. Therefore it is not considered to be under threat in Australia.

This, of course, raises the question of whether it is appropriate to classify a species as vulnerable in a state which supports about 1% of its total population. It seems as if this is a pedantic application of a set of rules according to an artificial demarcation line (a state border) that are of no relevance to the conservation of the species as a whole. The truth, however, is that whether or not state borders are natural, there can be no doubt that they represent real ecological boundaries in the modern world. Land management, and hence flora and fauna conservation, is almost entirely controlled by the state governments, and if there are differences in conservation policies or resources between states then it is sensible that each state look after its own as best it can.


The morphology of Crinum flaccidum varies considerably across its range from northern Queensland to arid, inland South Australia. The flower color, shape and structure differs from place to place as does the overall size of the plant. As a consequence the many forms have been assigned different names in past (at least 10 names are used in currently available literature) and, despite the current conservative taxonomy, it is possible (perhaps likely) that at sometime in the future the single species will be segregated into several species or subspecies. Indeed it is unusual for any species which is so widespread and variable to remain under a single name. If this happens and the Victorian form - which has been described as being distinct from those farther north - is found to belong to a species or subspecies with a more restricted distribution, then its conservation status would change.

This is, of course, surmise as Crinum flaccidum is still classified as a single species. Such a situation is not, however, without precedent. Until recently, the small coastal tree Eucalyptus diversifolia was regarded as vulnerable in Victoria as it was known from only a few sites in the far south-west of the state. Otherwise E. diversifolia is one of the the most widespread and abundant eucalypts in near-coastal South Australia making this situation analogous with that of Crinum flaccidum. A review of the taxonomy of E. diversifolia (in 2006) revealed that there are three distinct subspecies and the one of them (subsp. megacarpa) is almost entirely confined to Victoria. A second subspecies (subsp. hesparia) is known only from a small area near the WA-SA border.

This kind of research goes some way towards vindicating the approach of viewing rarity within a state rather than across the country as a whole.

© Paul Gullan, Viridans Biological Databases


The Genus Crinum (Amaryllidaceae)

Some common Garden species and hybrids in color.

L. S. Hannibal and Aaron Willliams Copyright © 1998 Lester Hannibal. All rights reserved. Please be patient, this page is still under development - Aaron

The genus Crinum is an attractive group of tropical and subtropical lilies found about Africa, Asia, Australia, and often in frost free areas of North and South America. Illustrations or color photographs appear in botanical publications from time to time, but an organized collection has not been published previously. As a consequence my many collecting friends have contributed photos and comments such that some of the better known members of the genus can be presented as an organized group. At the same time some cultural and breeding notes are included. They are a tempting group to hybridize, but tricky.

Back in 1820-40 Dean William Herbert became interested in the group after flowering quite a striking hybrid. At that time the existing ecclesiastical opinions were that most plant and animal species had evolved entirely by cross-breeding after Noah's flood. So Herbert initiated quite a breeding program and ended up 15 years later with only 24 named hybrids. Out of the 24 only two had produced seed. The old hybrid theory silently fell flat on its face!

The same breeding problems still exist today. The more colorful crinum species present a natural incentive for one to try various hybridization experiments, and hybrids are commonly obtained. But, the latter are usually sterile mules, as Herbert gradually realized and so stated. Often the hybrid pollens are viable, but most hybrid combinations are disinclined to accept any pollens, unless parental, and even then quite reluctantly. Occasionally hybrid pollens will back-cross onto parental or allied species. But success is often limited due to genetic conflicts. In 50 years I have only developed two or three interspecific hybrids which actually yield seed freely. On the other hand intraspecific breeding between related variants often results in fertile hybrids, as well as some nonfertile. So intraspecific breeding is the more successful, though seldom attempted, except with C. scabrum and its many variants.

Back in 1888 JG Baker, author of the Handbook of the Amaryllidaceae, divided the genus Crinum into three subdivisions of subgenera, with these based upon the shape and arrangement of the petals: (1) linear petals in an actinomorphic arrangement for subgenus Stenaster, ( 2) lorate petals, also actinomorphically arranged, for subgenus Platyaster and (3), for the subgenus Codonocrinum he cited those forms with broad elliptical petals in curved trumpet-shaped blossoms having bilateral symmetry. Genetically, and on the evolutionary basis, we find another basic division noted by Ker-Gawler in 1787 where the respective blossoms either have their seed capsules sessile or subsessile to the umbels, or in contrast (2) have their seed capsules and blossoms mounted on pedicels several inches in length. This sessile-pedicellated division gives us six distinct morphological groups which aid greatly in any preliminary classification, as well as suggesting breeding combinations. So we have obviously arranged our illustrations of species in accordance to these specific groups.

Then, according to G. Ledyard Stebbins, a well respected plant geneticist at UC Davis, the primitive Crinum were marsh plants with rush-like leaves, which bore simple sessile blossoms with narrow linear petals, (or more specifically, 'tepals' which botanists prefer to use in lieu of petals). The point is, during the last few million years with the many climatic changes, these aquatic plants, particularly coastal, spread readily on ocean currents and suffered less form the long dry cycles, and made few adaptive changes. So our more primitive Crinum are apparently the sessile-flowered, linear-petaled actinomorphic forms like C. defixum found mostly about Asia and Indonesia, or the many variants of C. americanum which range from northern Florida and the Louisiana Gulf down to northern Argentina. (Some American forms are found with linear tepals, not lorate, so logically they are among the most primitive).

Concurrently, we find some linear tepaled forms having elongated pedicells, normally with numerous blossoms like the C. asiaticum which are basically aquatic. Several of these early forms still exist in Africa, but have been subjected to more modifications there than Asia. With prolonged droughts inland African plants have experienced greater climatic stress with resulting modifications. Here a group succeeded in the development of the zygomorphic blossoms with the broad tepals and curved tepaltubes, primarily to protect the stigma and allied parts from direct sunlight. Likewise, both sessile and pedicellated Codonocrinum type-forms evolved, and in all probability the latter gave rise to Nerine, Brunsvigia, Amaryllis belladonna, Cybistetes, and Crossyne as all possess the same bilateral zygomorphic features. Amongst the sessile-zygomorphic Crinum forms (all tropical) we have the C. jagus series (ex C. giganteum) and the Crinum series Ornatae which contains C. scabrum, C. Abyssinicum, and even C. zeylanicum from India. In turn the long-pedicellated zygomorphic group contains forms like C. bulbispermum, C. macowanii, and C. moorei, all semitropicals or subtropicals.

So once we know these six distinctive morphological groups and their most obvious features and habits, their identifications are simplified, as are their possibilities for intercrossing.

The following individuals have contributed pictures for this study.

Luther Bundrant
Gordon Mc Neil
Mrs. D. C. Sheppard
Barry Clark
Robin Manasse
Steve Lowe
William Reuter
Michael Willets
Dave Lehmiller
Glen Tims
Dave Symon
Jim Melvin
Pat Malcolm
Marty Williams
Greg Pettit
Les Hannibal, your editor and chief bulbist
And not to overlook my daughter, Dorothy, whom typed this for the CD and my grandson, Aaron Williams, who transcribed and edited the color photos and put together this web site, some 400 megabytes of data.

I: Primitive Crinum with linear-tepaled, sessile blossoms: Stenaster sub-genus.

Fig. 1: Crinum mauritanianum Lodd. A native to Madagascar. Only a few collectors have this species which was photographed by Mrs. D. C. Sheppard. The species is sometimes confused with C. firmifolium due to past publication errors.
Fig. 2: Crinum subscernuum Baker. This plant has been confused with C. crassifolia in a recent publication. The tepals are near 8 mm. wide and the pedicels are sometimes 2-3 cm. long. In error Baker placed it in the subgenus Platyaster. Zambezi River area. Fig. 3: A variant of C. subscernuum. Fig. 4: Crinum defixum Ker-Gawler. This plant was originally identified as C. asiaticum by Linnaeus in his 1753 Species plantarum, but Ker-Gawler recognized the Radix toxicara Rumph since it was cited erroneously in Linnaeus' second edition of Species plantarum II as a C. asiaticum variant. He then rather subtly renamed the original Linnaean specimen C. defixum without giving credit to Linnaeus. The C. defixum is native to the east coast of India, and was correctly identified by William Roxburgh as Linnaeus' original type form. Fig. 5: Crinum firmifolium, tentative identification. The bulb was received from Madagascar by Greg Pettit in Kwazulu (ex Natal). The blossoms (4 to 6) are sessile while the tepals are ensiform. Its features suggest an adaptation to a windy marsh.

II. Stenaster forms with pedicellated blossoms.



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