The harvest has long been harvested, and it is snowing outside the window. It would seem that it's time to take a break from summer cottages, but the thoughts of many gardeners are already devoted to the future summer cottage season: what and where to plant, what fertilizers and seeds to buy, how much and what kind of film is needed for greenhouses and hotbeds ... - just place potatoes, cabbage, carrots, beets, onions and garlic, green crops on your hundred square meters, because everything else: trees, shrubs, raspberries and strawberries have long had their legal planting places.
But in practice, everything turns out to be more complicated - you have to compare a lot of different factors in order to make, sometimes, only one single correct decision. Moreover, for this it is not enough to know which cultures are light-loving and which are shade-tolerant - it is also necessary to take into account the fertility of this or that site, which crops grew here in the past, and preferably, and not only last year, and which crops will grow nearby peacefully and without conflicts.
Therefore, truly enthusiastic gardeners and gardeners have to plan and record in their garden no less painstakingly than accountants do their reporting. For example, my grandfather had a huge ledger with detailed garden plans for several decades, starting in the 50s. In fact, for so many years, information is not needed - in most cases, it is enough to have data for 3-4 years, but here the truly accounting nature of the grandfather affected. Everything is easier for me, since I have a computer at hand, and it is enough for me, on a plan drawn once in the corresponding program, to simply record the year and mark where and what cultures I grew up with. But most probably still have to draw such a plan by hand - in this case, it is wiser to draw a plan once indicating trees, shrubs, greenhouses, greenhouses and permanent ridges, then take a dozen photocopies, and on each one already mark the crops planted in this or that year - it will be so much faster.
Even with all the information you need, finding the right solution can be tricky. You start to place, and it seems that almost everything was planned out, but at the last stage it turns out that, for example, there is a bed for cabbage, on which this cabbage grew the year before last and at the same time was sick with keel. So, you can't plant her here, and everything starts over. Again, you have to redo the plan, look for a new solution and draw it again.
If you are familiar with a similar situation and every year you bring yourself to a headache by planning and moving crops around the garden again, then try an interesting solution that I recently read about (I don't need it, since I do everything on a computer, but most gardeners will probably come in handy). True, to use this approach, you must have rectangular ridges of similar size, and each vegetable must be planted on its own ridge (that is, not in company with others).
In this case, you can plan like this: take last year's site plan (or better plans for 3-4 years) and a blank sheet of paper. Draw this sheet into identical rectangles and write on them: potatoes, cabbage, carrots, onions, garlic, etc., listing everything that you plan to plant. Moreover, if you always occupy two ridges with garlic, then, accordingly, there should be two rectangles with the name "garlic", and so on. Cut the paper into separate rectangles and start on your plan to collect a puzzle called "entertaining garden", placing ridges-rectangles in the right way in the chosen places of your plan. It is not scary to be mistaken here, tk. it's easy to fix everything by moving the "wrong" rectangle to a new location. Try it, and it will be much easier to play all the situations in your head and redraw your plan many times over and over.
The first - all vegetables love a sunny place. Only green crops, which include onions on a feather, and perennial onions like chives and slime, partially put up with penumbra. This means that in a small shade of the house, fence, trees and shrubs, you can sow and plant onions and some herbs. Although you will not get a large harvest in this case, you still cannot grow anything else in these places.
Second - compatibility of vegetables: who is with whom it is good or, conversely, it is bad. Cabbage doesn't live with tomatoes and beans. Cucumber - with potatoes. Tomatoes - with fennel. Potatoes - with tomatoes and pumpkin. Peas and beans are very unpleasant onions and garlic, radish - hyssop. Only now carrots get along with everyone, although from the point of view of protection from carrot flies, it is preferable to sow it in the company with onions. It was about bad neighbors.
And the good ones? Here are other examples. All vegetables of the celery family (carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery) go well with the onion family: onions, garlic, leeks, and shallots. White and black radishes work well for other vegetables. Radish grows very well between rows of bush beans - it becomes very large, tasty and not wormy. Beans, corn, cabbage, horseradish and onions do not interfere with potatoes. But each separately, because there are several irreconcilable couples in this group.
Compatible with cabbage, onions, celery, potatoes, dill and lettuce. Tomatoes can be planted alongside greens and cabbages, asparagus and beans. Peas can coexist with carrots, cucumbers, potatoes, radishes, corn. Etc.
Third rule no less important - it must be borne in mind that phytoncides secreted by some plants scare away pests of other crops or prevent some diseases from developing. For example, onion phytoncides scare off carrot flies, and carrot phytoncides scare off onions. Dill protects cucumbers from disease, while onions and garlic protect tomatoes. Planting strong-smelling plants such as celery, thyme, or sage near the cabbage will drown out the smell of the cabbage and make it less attractive to pests. And basil is a good idea to plant near beans for protection from legume weevil, garlic - near roses to protect against aphids, parsley - near asparagus.
When planning we must also take into account the predecessors, that is, whether a suitable vegetable grew last season in the place where you will plant another in the spring. And here again there are numerous schemes! And the most important thing to learn is that you cannot plant the same culture in the same place. And, in addition, cabbage cannot be placed after any cabbage and beets. Beets - after beets, cabbage and tomatoes. Tomatoes - after all the nightshades and peas.
Fifthwhat has to be taken into account - long-term crop rotation, perspective for 3-4 years. It's even more complicated here. Agronomy teaches you to rotate vegetables according to their nutrient needs, in particular organic. Conventionally, in the first year (i.e. on fresh organic matter), cucumber, zucchini, pumpkin, cabbage of medium and late ripening periods, leeks, etc. are grown, that is, those crops for which a lot of organic matter needs to be applied. In the second year, they are replaced by onions, peppers, tomatoes, potatoes. The third is the turn of root crops (carrots, beets, radishes, etc.), which have to add a hefty portion of mineral fertilizers.
With the garden, it is still more difficult, because we plant vegetables every year, and if one year your layout was unsuccessful, then perhaps the next year everything will turn out to be much better.
We place trees and shrubs in permanent places for a long time, and once planted apple trees will supply you with fruits for the rest of your life. Therefore, when drawing up a garden plan, it is imperative to allocate separate permanent places for each tree species, for vegetables, for flowers, and everything must be correctly calculated in advance where and what will grow in 10-20 years. And there are many rules here too.
Rule one consists in the presence of a permanent place for each group of crops (fruit trees, berry bushes, vegetable and ornamental crops). A common mistake is the combined arrangement of crops, when vegetables, strawberries, berry bushes are placed among young apple and pear trees. At first, everything turns out well: trees do not take up much space, there is enough light and nutrition for other plants. But over time, the trees grow, and then the catch crops fall into the shade, their productivity becomes low. Therefore, the first rule of site planning is to allocate a separate permanent place for each crop. Of course, you can temporarily grow berry bushes, strawberries and vegetables among vigorous tree species, but then, when there is a strong darkening, they will have to be removed and moved somewhere else, which you need to think about in advance.
Second rule is to provide for the possibility of renewing strawberries, berry bushes, cherry and plum trees. Say, strawberries bear fruit well in one place for 2-3 years. In the fourth or, in extreme cases, the fifth year of fruiting, it must be completely eliminated. Therefore, one garden bed is vacated annually so that vegetables can be grown here the next year, and the vegetable bed is planted with strawberries. Therefore, it is more convenient to refer strawberries not to the garden, but to the garden and to change strawberry ridges with vegetable ridges. Currant, gooseberry and raspberry bushes can theoretically bear fruit for a very long time in one place, and everything here depends on proper care. It is more profitable (from the point of view of saving your own time) to take good care of these crops and regularly prune and spray, then in one place, subject to rejuvenating pruning, they can bear fruit for 10, 15 years or more. And everything will be fine. And if you take care of it badly, then they will not last long, the bushes will weaken from diseases, pests, malnutrition and thickening, and you will have to look for another place for them and start growing and shaping again.
The third rule of planning - respect for the rights of a neighbor. Your trees should not shade the adjacent area too much. The distance from the tree trunk to the border should be at least half of the generally accepted row spacing: for vigorous trees 3.5-4 m, for medium-sized trees - 2.0-2.5 m.In the strip between the trees and the border, you can plant currants, gooseberries, raspberries ... And in no case should you plant tall trees and shrubs 20 cm from the border, which, alas, is not uncommon.
Fourth rule of planning - a decrease in the height of plants as they approach the house. In order for the housing to be dry and light, the lowest plants should be placed near the house - flowers, lawn grasses, part of strawberries, vegetables, shrubs, and tall trees should be taken further into the interior of the site.
Fifth rule - taking into account the characteristics of certain plants. From berry bushes in drier, but well-lit places, it is better to plant red currants, gooseberries, and black currants on lower, more humid (but not swampy) places. Raspberries and sea buckthorn are planted separately in specially designated areas of the site, since the former gives many root suckers, and the latter develops long roots that interfere with the growth and development of other plants; strawberries are planted in places where snow lingers well in winter. Growing strawberries between fruit trees is undesirable.
Chokeberry and sea buckthorn look good when planted in groups closer to home. Lemongrass and actinidia are planted near the wall of the house so that there is protection from the wind and the possibility of creating reliable vertical supports for them. Barberry and lilacs are planted away from all other crops (somewhere apart), because their root secretions do not give life to other plants.
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
The plot for the garden should be fertile. Vegetables were traditionally grown in rural farmsteads, where a lot of organic matter was introduced into the soil, but in modern garden plots there is a completely different situation, additional reclamation measures may be required - for example, if the groundwater is shallow, drainage is arranged with the flow of excess water into arranged reservoirs or wells.
The plot for the garden should be fertile. Usually, beginners just need to fertilize in the fall:
Followed by dig up a site as deep as possible, but taking into account the thickness of the fertile layer. On poor podzolic soils, instead of deep plowing, gradual plowing is carried out with a deepening of the arable horizon by 5-7 cm per year and composts from any types of organic matter are used. Baking powder is required only on heavy and swimming soils.
Good results are obtained sowing perennial grasses (alfalfa, clover, sainfoin) for 2-3 years and their plowing. Instead of perennial grasses, you can smell annual grasses as siderates... These can be mixtures based on barley or oats with vetch or peas. Before plowing the grass, it is necessary to grind and apply nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers on top at the rate of 1-2 kg per hundred square meters.
Compost is a good organic fertilizer
Fertilization of individual vegetable crops has its own features... So, organic matter (manure, humus, compost) is introduced under the cucumber, zucchini, late and medium cabbage, and only humus or well-decomposed compost under the tomato, pepper, eggplant. Under onions and root crops, early cabbage, only mineral fertilizers are applied.
We will devote to fertilizers and feeding separate lesson... You will also find more information in the Reading List for this lesson.
These are trees and shrubs that grow and bear fruit well in your latitudes. For the middle lane, these are pears, apple trees (it is advisable to plant several trees of different varieties), different varieties of plums and cherry plums, cherries. In warm latitudes, cherries and apricots will ripen. Berry bushes - all varieties of currants, gooseberries, blackberries, raspberries. With a small area of u200b u200bthe plot, it is convenient to arrange shrubs around the perimeter.
On vegetable beds nearby, you need to plant crops that grow well in close proximity to each other:
When you draw a diagram, decide which plants to plant and in what quantity, you can start marking the garden on the ground, buy seedlings and prepare the soil.
Adult fruit garden
Many gardeners ask me how the correct planting of fruit trees is carried out, taking into account their compatibility, how to place fruit and berry crops on your site so that they grow and bear fruit well. As in a small area of the garden, the proximity of different varieties and species of fruit trees will influence each other.
In this material, I will try to reveal the basic principles of organizing an ideal garden on a sitewhere all trees and shrubs are arranged according to the principles of harmonious neighborhood and vertical arrangement.
No "water", just useful concise information for novice gardeners. General recommendations are given, but particulars, for example, how to plant apple trees, can be understood without problems.
An example of placing and planting fruit trees on the site
Planting trees in the country is a very crucial moment., however, a lot of preparatory work always precedes the laying of a garden. The assessment and selection of sites is carried out taking into account the suitability of the soil for planting, and the mistakes made in the future are already difficult to correct.
Our gardeners most often do not have to decide on the choice of plots - what we give is what we cultivate. But it is important to know their features and, if possible, try to correct the shortcomings.
Undesirable for the garden sprayed, highly podzolized soils, waterlogged, stony and dense clayey. Swampy, closed pits and hollows are completely unsuitable for laying a garden.
Dangerous for fruit plants areas with a high groundwater table. In such areas, plants are short-lived. The roots of fruit trees, reaching the water, die off from lack of air, then the ends of the branches dry up, and the skeletal branches begin to die off.
Placement and planting of fruit trees - their compatibility on a plot of 4 acres
When planting apples and pears, the groundwater level should be no closer than 2 m from the soil surface. Cherries and plums with less deep roots can be planted at a depth of groundwater no closer than 1.5 m, and currants, gooseberries, raspberries - in the presence of groundwater no closer than 1 m.
It has been experimentally established that if tree species such as oak, maple, linden, bird cherry grow near the garden plot, then fruit plants will grow well. But if alder, sedge grasses, horsetails grow in the vicinity - all this indicates swampiness and increased acidity of the soil.
Compatibility chart for planting fruit trees
Usually in a small garden area, various pome, stone fruit, walnut and berry crops grow. Apple trees, pears, cherries, plums, raspberries, gooseberries, currants and strawberries are compatible with each other, which made it possible to grow them together for centuries in a limited area of the garden.
Thickened plantings - a mistake
A big mistake when placing fruit trees is thickened plantings. Each fruit plant needs a sufficient volume of soil and air throughout its life for normal growth and fruiting. Therefore, it is initially important to distribute cultures according to their area in adulthood.
Planting fruit trees on the site
When establishing the distance between fruit seedlings when planting, one must take into account, first of all, the size of the crown in width. Closing the crowns of neighboring trees, and even more so the mutual interlacing of branches, impairs the lighting inside the crown.
As a result, premature death of overgrowing and fruit branches inside the crown occurs. In addition, spraying, pruning, and harvesting is much more difficult with closed, intertwined crowns.
Fruit tree on a trellis
Garden on the site: temporary compaction of plantings
You can carry out temporary compacted planting by placing currants, gooseberries, strawberries in the rows of young fruit trees. As the trees grow, the latter are removed from the aisles of the garden.
An excessive increase in the distance between berry bushes and fruit trees is also impractical, since the number of plants per unit area decreases, while the total yield of berries and fruits decreases.
Fruit trees - compatibility
Fruit crops have different winter hardiness, therefore, their location must be organized so that tall apple trees, pears grow from the northern or northeastern side of the site, do not shade other plants and protect them from strong winds.
On household plots, where processing is carried out mainly by hand, the apple and pear can be placed at a distance of 4-5 m from each other, and the cherry and plum - at a distance of 2.5-4 m.
Fruit tree seedling drip irrigation idea
In addition, the placement of the varieties of each crop should be such that it promotes the best cross-pollination, or, as they say, the best cross-pollination. In fruit species (apple, pear, plum, cherry), self-fertile and self-fertile varieties are distinguished.
Self-fertile tie fruits when pollinated with their own pollen, self-infertile - only when pollinated with pollen of another variety. Almost all of our fruit are self-sterile, and several different varieties must be planted for normal pollination and fruiting.
Resting place in the garden under pear trees
Distance 20-25 meters
Observations have shown that between different varieties of fruit species, which should pollinate each other, the distance should be no more than 20-25 meters. Consider this when planting them. Bumblebees and bees carry pollen from one variety to another.
Cherries, sea buckthorn, raspberries give growth, so strawberries cannot be planted in the immediate vicinity. In addition, raspberries and strawberries have a common pest - the strawberry-raspberry weevil.
Lime on the ground is a protection against ants. Netting on the tree - protection from rodents.
Often a gardener has a question, how much and where to plant plants of a particular breed? Placing plants on the site is everyone's personal business. Most of the garden plots are of consumer value, that is, they receive a variety of garden products to meet the family's needs for berries and fruits.
Some gardeners deliberately choose a particular crop, such as strawberries, and get a crop that exceeds their own needs for sale.
There are gardeners who are interested not only in the harvest of fruits, but in the cultivation of some rare species and varieties grown in an unusual way, for example, grapes, walnuts, etc.
Fruit trees have a long life. Mistakes made when choosing a place and soil for fruit trees appear over many years and, as a rule, are difficult to correct.
When choosing a place for a garden, it is necessary to consider topography, soil conditions, groundwater level and the presence of upstream. In the conditions of Central Russia in unfavorable winters, even relatively winter-hardy varieties of apple trees often freeze slightly.
The results of overwintering to a large extent depend on the peculiarities of the location of the garden.
In winter, the air becomes heavier as it cools. On the slopes, it flows down. On level ground, the air has nowhere to drain and it cools down at night. In low places (closed valleys, hollows, depressions, "saucers"), not only is there no runoff of cold air, but, on the contrary, additional cold air flows into them from areas located above.
An example of placing trees and plantings on the site
Production experience shows that apple trees grow and bear fruit well on soils that provide free penetration of roots to a depth of at least 60-90 cm. Therefore, when choosing a soil for a garden, you should pay attention to both the topsoil and the underlying soils.
What soils are suitable
In the conditions of the Middle Belt, the most suitable for fruit trees are sod-podzolic soils, developing on light loams and cohesive sandy loams, underlain at a depth of about 1 m by waterproof moraine loam.
Boggy soils and all soils with a high level of groundwater, or with prolonged perching in the spring months, are of little use for apple trees and other tree fruit species.
However, the cultivation of fruit crops on such soils is possible with appropriate domestication and micro-melioration. The oldest and most widespread methods of soil cultivation are: creating ramparts, creating hills, using ridges, draining soils with open ditches, etc.
Ramparts and Hills are created in order to raise the root system of cultivated plants as high as possible above the water table. With this method, like no other, the soil is well warmed up and aerated, which increases its microbiological activity, and, consequently, fertility.
The shafts are arranged in various widths - from 2.5 to 4 m. The height is also different and depends on the level of groundwater and the degree of waterlogging of the soil. Most often it is 0.6-0.9 m. It is possible to arrange shafts from the existing soil, as well as from the imported one. The size of the shaft depends on the water table in June. The upper edge of the shaft should rise 1.5-2 m above this level.
Hills are being built on waterlogged places from the imported mineral soil of the humus horizon. The height of the mound should be 0.9-1 m, the width or diameter in the upper part should be 0.5-0.6 m, in the lower part - 2.5-3 m.The larger the embankment, the better, since as the garden grows the hill has to be increased.
On excessively moistened household plots, the planting of fruit trees on permanent ridges, up to 4 m wide, is widespread. Excess moisture flows from the ridges into the furrows, and from the furrows into the ditches. The ridges are better warmed up by the sun. Fruit trees should be planted in small holes equal to the size of the root system of the tree to be planted.
can also be used in the cultivation of fruit and berry crops. The most common and reliable way of draining wetlands is with pottery pipes. But the high cost of this method does not allow it to be widely used in household plots.
The study and comparison of the root system of apple trees showed that the mass of roots, the zone of their distribution, was much larger in trees on ramparts than on a flat surface. A powerful root system ensures good crown growth and fruit bearing of trees.
Preplant soil preparation
Optimal conditions for the growth and development of fruit trees are created on soils rich in organic matter, with a high moisture capacity and with good gas exchange. It is very important not only to choose an appropriate area for the garden, but also to properly prepare the soil on it.
It is possible to cultivate the soil before planting fruit trees in future ordinary strips, approximately 1.5-2 m wide. Organic fertilizers (manure, compost) are immediately applied to the entire area at the rate of 0.8-1 tons per hundred square meters.
In areas where continuous plowing with manure incorporation is carried out, this cannot be done. Large planting holes are dug here (up to 1-1.5 m in diameter, up to 80 cm deep). Then the pits are filled by about three quarters with the upper, more fertile layer of soil.
Sod soil is taken first from the edges of the pit, and then from the row spacing. At the bottom of the pit, 50-100 g of the active substance of phosphorus fertilizers, 10-15 kg of humus or peat compost are applied. In any case, the fertilizers are well mixed with the soil.
When entering peat pits it must be remembered that peat very slowly and poorly passes water through itself. Therefore, if dry peat is poured into the pit, it will remain dry for a long time, sometimes years when watering from above. So, it is necessary to introduce either already sufficiently moist peat into the pits, or water the peat in the pit even before planting the trees and be sure to shovel it for uniform moisture.
The earlier the seedlings are dug up in the fall, the longer the period will be - favorable for the formation of new roots when the aerial part is at rest. However, digging out the seedlings too early is not good, since by this time the tree will not accumulate stocks, and it will not end the maturation of the tissues.
Unripe tissues retain water much worse and suffer greatly from freezing and drying out. Therefore, the seedlings should be dug up in the fall as soon as the ripening of the aboveground parts ends.
Late planting of an apple tree in autumn, less than 20-30 days before a strong drop in soil temperature, that is, later than October 15-20, gives poor results. The consequences of winter damage to late transplanted trees can be observed in plants even during subsequent years (worse growth, delay in the beginning of fruiting).
With such a transplant, it is important to ensure a sufficiently tight adhesion of the soil to the roots of the transplanted trees. Usually, the developing roots and small roots of the plant push the soil particles apart, coming into close contact with them.
The transplanted trees do not retain small lobes. The need of the tree for water at this time is especially great. Careless planting often leaves air-filled voids between the main skeletal roots, causing the roots to grow moldy.
It is convenient to land together, when one holds a tree, and the other gives the earth, which the planter carefully stuffs under the roots and between them. After the earth is stuffed between the roots, the planter gets into the hole and tramples the ground thrown by the second worker with his feet.
At first, the tree has to be lightly supported by the hand. In order to avoid breaking the roots, the ground is trampled from the edges of the pit to its middle (the heels should be directed to the edges of the pit, and the worker should be facing the tree all the time).
The seal must be such that the planted tree cannot be pulled out, even with some force.
Planting too shallow will expose the roots after the soil subsides and dry out. If planted too deep, especially on heavy, clayey, poorly ventilated soils, trees will also suffer and grow poorly.
The tree must be planted to such a depth that, after settling, its root collar coincides with the soil surface. The root collar of a tree is the place where the trunk transitions to the root. It can be determined by a change in the brown color of the trunk, which has greenish tones in its composition, into an orange-yellow color of the root.
When landing, rememberthat the main skeletal roots will thicken in the future. If you leave them knotted into a bun, and even more twisted, intertwined, they will interfere with each other in the future. To avoid this, the roots must be straightened when planting.
In very strong winds, especially after heavy rains or watering, transplanted trees may fall under the weight of the crown. The larger the transplanted plants, the higher the danger. Therefore, when transplanting fruit trees older than two years of age, a stake is firmly driven into the bottom of the pit and a tree is tied to it.
If the soil is moistened to a great depth and the trees are transplanted in rainy weather, they do not need to be watered. Pouring water when watering should be closer to the edges of the pit to avoid gullies at the base of the tree. When the water is completely absorbed into the soil, holes are made around the trees in case of further watering.
The level of occurrence of groundwater has a great influence on the choice of horticultural crops. If they are closer than 2 m, then this place is unsuitable for apple trees on vigorous rootstocks and pears. Cherries, plums and apple trees on dwarf rootstocks feel satisfactory when the waters are no closer than 1.5 m, berry bushes - up to 1 m.
If the water reaches 0.5 m, then only garden strawberries can be grown.If the water is close, but you still want to have fruit trees, then you can plant them on ridges or mounds.
In order to make the most of the sun's heat, layered planting of horticultural crops is recommended: in the south of the site - low strawberries, then currants and gooseberries, then stone fruits in the north - the tallest: apple and pear.
At the southern walls, where the plants receive additional heat, which is reflected by the wall, the most heat-loving plants are planted - grapes, cherries, apricots. Dessert varieties, in which the main thing is appearance, taste and aroma, also require the sunniest places.
The trunk and main skeletal branches of the tree are conductors of nutrients. They should thicken evenly and match each other. Their uniform thickening depends on the condition of the bark. Sick, coarse bark compresses the conducting vessels, which prevents the supply of nutrients from the leaves to the roots and vice versa. A layer of dead cortex makes it difficult for cambium cells to divide. In addition, dead bark is a refuge for pests.
Dead bark, mosses and lichens are removed from the trunk and the main skeletal branches in the fall, preferably in cloudy weather. Metal scrapers and wire brushes are used for cleaning. On young trees, the trunks and bases of skeletal branches are wiped with coarse burlap or straw bundles.
The bark is first cleaned with scrapers and then with brushes. After cleaning, the bark, mosses and lichens are burned, and the stem and the bases of the crowns are whitewashed with a lime solution (1.5-2 kg of lime, 0.5 kg of clay and a little mullein are taken for 1 bucket of water). When whitewashing, special attention should be paid to the places where the skeletal branches leave the trunk, where pests usually hibernate and there are foci of fungal diseases.
In the first years after planting, the trees either do not give fruit at all, or give them little. At this time, the crown of the tree is laid. The gardener's attention should be directed towards ensuring good growth of the shoots. It is desirable that a powerful crown be formed as soon as possible. During this period, special attention should be paid to good (but not excessive) nutrition.
There are a number of methods for enriching the soil with phosphorus, potassium, and organic matter. First, the topsoil is filled with nutrients. a trunk circle (around a tree) with a radius of 2 m.
On it, phosphorus, potash and organic fertilizers are applied in increased quantities. This work must be completed quickly - in three or four years. During this period, it is desirable to increase the potassium content on heavy soil up to 15 mg, on medium - up to 12 mg, on light - up to 8 mg per 100 g of soil. The amount of available phosphorus on all soils is up to 12-15 mg. These figures are approximate.
It would be better to set the amount of necessary fertilization depending on the initial fertility of the soil. The less it contains this or that nutrient, the more you need to apply the appropriate fertilizer. And vice versa. If there is no soil analysis data, it can be recommended to make 15-20 g / m2 of active ingredient phosphorus and potassium, i.e. 50-70 g / m2 of superphosphate and 30-40 g each of potassium chloride.
If there is only fruit and berry or some other ready-made mixture, its make at the rate of 250 g / sq.m. In addition to mineral fertilizer, organic fertilizers should also be given - 4-5 kg / sq.m. When applying organic fertilizer, the potassium dose is reduced by one third. It would be better to compost mineral fertilizers (or, in extreme cases, just mix) with organic ones.
When the top layer turns out to be enriched in phosphorus and potassium (approximately, in the fourth year), the site is dug deep in this place (by 22-25 cm). To reduce the damage to the roots, a shovel when digging is placed along the radius of the circle, and not across.
The upper layer, filled with fertilizer, must be placed down, where the roots of the tree will then develop, and the lower (poor) layer up. In the future, it will be easy to enrich the turned-out bottom layer with nutrients by applying fertilizer in usual doses - 6-7 g / m2 of active ingredient.
first, fertilizers are applied in full, as indicated above, then around the tree (a little further than the periphery of the crown) they dig a groove 35-40 cm deep and about 50 cm wide.This is done entirely (in a ring) or intermittently, so as not to disturb part of the roots.
The grooves are covered with soil from the arable layer, taking the missing one from the aisles. Phosphorus, potash, and organic fertilizers are added to the soil intended for filling the groove. The amount of phosphorus, potash and organic fertilizers per 1 square meter is increased by 2-2.5 times.
Site plan 25 x 40 meters
The layout of a fruit and berry garden is a responsible task, on the solution of which the supply of the family with tasty and varied fruits and berries will depend in the future. Therefore, when planning a site, you need to hurry slowly (as the people say).
When planning a land plot, it is necessary to allocate an open, sunny place with a high groundwater table for the garden. You cannot lay a garden in a lowland, where cold streams of air and water will roll down during spring floods. After an external examination of the land allocated for the garden, identify and write down in your diary a list of preparatory work.
Garden layout. © woodcroft orchard
On a separate sheet of garden diary, draw a garden layout diagram. The garden can be located in front of the house, to the side or to the back, but trees and bushes should be located from north to south for better lighting and have three zones. They can be located one after the other or divided into three separate sections located at different ends of the total cottage area.
On the pages of the garden diary, write down the names and a brief description of fruit and berry crops, and in the diagram indicate their location under the numbers on the area of the site.
Plan your future garden so that the plants do not interfere with each other and do not block the light. © pickleshlee
When dividing the berry on the diagram, immediately take into account the nature of the plants. So, black currant grows quietly surrounded by other neighbors, but sea buckthorn and viburnum are rather quarrelsome with neighbors.
Therefore, they are planted separately. Sea buckthorn can be used as a green hedge, and viburnum, hawthorn can be used as a landscape decoration for a rest corner.
In solitary plantings of mown lawns, they look great.
Some owners believe that it is generally better to place berry trees along the boundaries of the site. In this case, part of the land is freed up for other crops or zones (recreation, sports, etc.). Such planning is suitable if the site is not surrounded by a green hedge or the berry bushes themselves can serve this purpose with their own characteristics (thorny, dense, etc.).
The planting density of the berry is very important. It is a natural regulator of optimal plant development, their resistance to diseases and yield formation.
Planting berry bushes. © Thomas Generazio
The number of certain berry bushes is very important. Think over and plan in advance on the diagram the amount of each species and variety so that both provide the family with fresh berries and make preparations for the winter.
For a family of 4-5 people there will be enough raspberries 20 bushes, 3-4 bushes of all types of currants and gooseberries, yoshta, irgi and honeysuckle. Leave some free space for exotic newcomers who will come into your field of vision over time.
A properly planned berry grows normally and bears fruit within 7-12 years, and then gradually rejuvenates or the bushes are transferred to another place.
On the next free page of the garden diary, draw a diagram of the placement of fruit crops. Conditionally allocate 4 square meters for each culture. m total area under one tree. Do not thicken the planting. The trees will grow and begin to interfere, or even oppress each other. Planting holes should be located in a row at a distance of 4.0-4.5 m. Leave row spacing at least 2.5-3.0 m.
Pay attention to the types of crops. So, today most of the farms are switching to columnar forms of apple and pear - the main horticultural crops in the dacha. In terms of habit, these species are much smaller, and the yield is almost equal to tall crops. Columnar forms are easier to care for, they are resistant to diseases, and are less damaged by frost.
For an average family, 1-2 trees of each species are enough. Early, middle and late varieties should be present in the garden in order to have fresh fruits throughout the warm season and also to prepare processed for the winter. From horticultural crops, it is enough to have 2 cherries (early and late). Plant 2 cherries instead of medium cherries.
They form the harvest after early cherries. You need 1 quince (later another species or other varieties can be grafted on it), 2-3 plums, including one marabel. Enough 1-2 apricots of frost-resistant varieties. 2-3 apple trees, which, over time, through grafting, can be turned into 6-8 varieties of different ripening periods.
Don't forget to leave room for exotics. Be sure to plant the nut separately. Almost nothing grows under the crown of this culture. If you love hazel, set aside the first row for it so that taller trees don't deprive it of the sun with its shadow.
11-12 fruit trees will eventually develop into 18-20 varieties of all kinds.
In order for the garden to serve for a long time and not get sick, it is imperative to use zoned varieties. They are more resistant to diseases, pests, weather changes, and bear fruit longer.
You can get acquainted with the varieties and varieties for your region, up to the region, and their characteristics in catalogs and other literature. When buying seedlings, be sure to contact a specialist.
Remember! A garden planted with low-quality seedlings will add work and care, but will not please with the harvest and quality of fruits.
Lay the garden in the fall, that is, dig planting holes according to your scheme, prepare the fertilizer mixture near each that is necessary for the condition of the soil.
In the fall, you can prepare a planting hole of only approximate dimensions, since the final version will be determined by the size of the root system, which depends on the age of the purchased seedling. The preliminary size of the planting pit is approximately 60x60 for 2-year-old seedlings, for 3-year-old it can be increased to 70x80 cm and finalized when the seedling is planted in the hole.
Near each pit, mix the topsoil with humus, peat. In the spring, before planting a seedling, add to this mixture a glass of wood ash and slaked lime and 200 g of nitrophoska each. Mix well.
Seedlings of fruit trees and berry bushes are best purchased from trusted manufacturers. © mainetoday
Planting seedlings is best done in the spring. During the growing season, the seedlings will get stronger, the root system will strengthen. During the warm spring-summer-autumn period, a young tree adapts to a new habitat.
Take your time to buy seedlings from individual unfamiliar sellers, especially along the roads leading to the dacha. It is better to purchase seedlings from farms that grow them or in nurseries. There is more confidence that you will get the desired zoned variety of exactly the garden or berry crop you need.
Examine the selected seedling carefully. If you find dried roots, a crooked stem, cracks in the bark, or drops of gum, skip the purchase. Remember! No seller's assurances will refund lost time.
1-2 days before planting, soak the seedlings in the root or other growth stimulant. Prepare a container of clay mash with the addition of root, planriz or phytosporin. You can use other biofungicides suitable for tank mixes.
Approximately 2-3 weeks before planting the seedlings, pour part of the soil mixture with a cone into the hole. During this week, the cone will settle, and the planted seedling will be correctly positioned in the hole.
Dip the prepared seedling into a chatterbox, insert it into the hole, straighten the root in a cone so that there are no creases upward, and fill 2/3 of the hole with soil mixture. Pour a bucket of water. After soaking back up the rest of the potting mix or soil. Drive in the stake and secure the seedling with a figure eight to the support.
A loose seedling, swaying under the gusts of wind, will break off small roots that provide a connection between the plant and the soil.
When planting, be sure to observe the correct depth of the root collar. When it deepens, the tree can dry out for no reason after 5-10 years (especially on heavy soils).
On light sandy loam soils (especially in the south), it is better to slightly deepen the root collar into the soil (8-10 cm), "hiding" it from the upper drying layer. In seedlings that form adventitious roots or shoots (figs, currants, plums, apple trees), deepening does not interfere with the normal development of the tree.
Seedlings of these crops quickly rebuild the root system, more often on insufficiently moistened soils.
In own-rooted seedlings, the root collar should be at the level of the planting pit or 2-3 cm higher (no more). In grafted seedlings, the grafting site is 4-8 cm above the root collar. Novice gardeners often confuse the root collar and grafting and deepen the planting to the grafting site. In this case, the root collar is deeply buried in the soil and the tree dies early.
If you have correctly identified the root collar and planted the seedling so that it rises 4-5 cm above the soil, then the tree has been planted correctly. We compact the soil around the planting. At a distance from the trunk with a radius of 30-50 cm, we make a roller 5-7 cm high and fill in another 2-3 buckets of water.
Together with the absorbed water, it will sink into the soil and the seedling. Make sure that the root collar remains 2-3 cm above the soil. If necessary, fill up the soil after watering and mulch with a small layer of fine mulch (peat or humus, sawdust).
If you bought live seedlings, the planting is done correctly, in 2-3 weeks your garden will turn green with the first young leaves.
Apple trees on trellises. © starkbros
In older seedlings (3-4 years old), wipe the lower part of the trunk with a wet rag and, after the wet zone dries, carefully scrape off the bark with a knife at the site of an inconspicuous expansion of the trunk to the root.
If at the site of expansion the scraped off color of the young subcrustal layer is green, then this is the stem, and if it is yellowish, then the root zone. The place of transition from one color to another is the root collar.
A thick layer of mulch is applied in the fall, which will protect the soil from freezing and death of seedlings from low temperatures.