Such a herb as gypsophila (Gypsophila) is also called kachim, tumbleweed, gypsophila. It is directly related to the clove family. The name of this plant is translated as "loving lime" because most species of such a flower in natural conditions prefer to grow on limestone. This genus unites more than 100 species, such plants are represented by herbaceous perennials, annuals, and shrubs. Under natural conditions, it can be found in Northeast Africa, Eurasia and New Zealand. Gardeners cultivate both perennial gypsophila and annuals.
The strong taproot of this plant is branched. The erect or outstretched stem is practically leafless, its height varies from 20 to 50 centimeters. Semi-shrub species can grow up to 100 centimeters or more. Small, solid leaf plates are lanceolate, spatulate, or oval in shape. Inflorescences are loose, paniculate in shape. They include small greenish-white or white flowers, but in several species (for example, Pacific gypsophila or creeping) they have a pink color. They can be simple or terry. The fruit is a unilocular achene, the shape of which can be spherical or ovoid. These seeds remain viable for 2-3 years.
Gypsophila can be propagated both by seed and vegetative method. Such a plant, which is an annual, can only be propagated by seed; there are also perennials that propagate by seeds.
Annuals are sown directly into open soil before winter, while sowing is carried out on a training (spreading) bed. By the next spring period, the plants will get stronger, and they can be planted in a permanent place.
Perennials are grown through seedlings. To do this, at the beginning of spring, the seeds are sown in boxes, while they are distributed freely, and they are buried in the soil by only 5 mm. Cover the container with glass on top, and put it in a warm place with good illumination.
After 7-15 days, the first seedlings will appear. They need to be thinned out. So, the distance between plants should be about 15 centimeters. They can also be transplanted into individual peat pots. Further, the plants will need additional lighting, because the duration of daylight hours should be 13-14 hours.
Gypsophila. Sowing Gypsophila.
After the flower has 1-2 true leaf plates, they should be planted in a permanent place. When choosing a suitable site, it is worth considering that perennial gypsophila can grow without transplanting for many years in a row. It is preferable to choose a well-lit and dry place for such a flower, while the soil should contain lime, as well as a little humus. If there is no lime in the soil, then it must be added there. To do this, you need 1 m2 take from 25 to 50 grams of CaCo3, while the pH of the soil should ultimately be in the range of 6.3–6.7. When choosing a site, remember that groundwater should not lie close to the soil surface, since gypsophila reacts negatively to dampness in the root system.
When planting between flowers, a distance of 70 centimeters must be observed, and the aisles must be 130 centimeters long. When planting seedlings, remember that in no case should the root collar be buried in the ground. Planted flowers need to be watered. After a couple of years of planting, it will be necessary to thin out, since at this time by 1 m2 only 1 plant should grow. For those bushes that will be dug out, you need to cool the roots, and then they are planted in another place. This is to make the bushes look more spectacular during flowering. Cute flowers of such a plant are used for cutting, for example, they are often used to decorate composite bouquets.
The first flowering of such a plant can be seen after it grows at least 12 pairs of leaf plates. The most spectacular bush becomes 3 years after planting in a permanent place.
Even an inexperienced gardener can take care of such a flower. Watering should be done only during dry and hot periods. During watering, water should be poured at the root. It is necessary to feed the plants 2 or 3 times during the whole season, while mineral fertilizers must be alternated with organic ones. It is recommended to take mullein infusion as an organic fertilizer, while fresh manure should never be used.
In addition to seeds, this flower can be propagated by cuttings. For example, terry forms reproduce only by cuttings. Cuttings are recommended to be cut from young stems, on which flowers have not yet begun to form, and this time falls just in May or the last days of April. Also, cutting of cuttings can be done in August, choosing young shoots for this. In order to root the cuttings, they are planted in a loose substrate, which must include chalk. The stalk should be buried a couple of centimeters, and in order for it to take root well, the temperature should be maintained at about 20 degrees. Also, the cuttings of gypsophila need 12 hours of light, and they also need high air humidity (about 100%), so it is advisable to place the plant in a mini-greenhouse. For planting cuttings in the garden, you should choose a time so that they have time to get sick and take root before the onset of the autumn cold.
If the plant is improperly taken care of, then it can then get sick with rust or gray rot, and cyst-forming or root nematodes can also start in it. In order to destroy nematodes, you should use phosphamide, they need to spray the bush several times, while the breaks between treatments should be from 3 to 5 days. However, if the nematodes do not die, then you will need to dig out the bush and wash its root system in water, the temperature of which should be from 50 to 55 degrees. The fact is that nematodes die already at a temperature of 40 degrees. In order to get rid of gray rot and rust, it is necessary to use a contact fungicidal agent (oxychom, Bordeaux mixture, copper sulfate).
In the autumn, after the bush dries, in the place where the flowers were, small boxes appear in which small seeds are located, they are similar in size to brown grains of sand. The boxes need to be cut off. In the room, seeds are poured from them onto a newspaper sheet. They must be dried and matured in a room with ventilation. Dried seeds need to be poured into paper bags or cardboard boxes, in which they will be stored.
At the end of the autumn period, the perennial gypsophila must be cut off, while only 3 or 4 powerful shoots should remain at the root. Then the bushes must be covered with dried leaves or covered with spruce branches, this will save them during a winter with little snow or during severe frosts.
This perennial plant can reach a height of 1.2 m. The bush takes on a spherical shape in a fairly short time. On strongly branched shoots there are narrow greenish-gray leaf plates, on the surface of which there is pubescence. The flowers are small (diameter about 0.6 centimeters), they are part of paniculate inflorescences. Depending on the variety, the flowers can be double or plain, white or pink. Varieties:
An annual plant, it has a spherical bush, it reaches a height of 0.4–0.5 m. Its shoots are highly branched, small lanceolate leaves and small flowers that can be painted pink, white or carmine. They are part of the openwork corymbose panicles. The flowering is lush, but does not last long. Varieties:
It is a branchy annual plant. The bush can reach a height of 0.3 m. Opposite dark green leaf plates have a linear shape. The panicles include small white or pink flowers. Varieties:
It is a perennial. The sprawling bush reaches a height of 100 centimeters. Strongly branched shoots. Lanceolate wide leaf plates are bluish-gray. The light pink flowers are about 0.7 cm in diameter.
Gypsophila jascolkovid, areciiform, tender and Patrena's gypsophila are also especially popular.
Usually heliantemums are sown directly into the ground, but under some circumstances it is advisable to grow sunflower seedlings at home, followed by planting seedlings in the garden.
Heliantemum seeds are sown for seedlings in early March, and peat tablets or cups should be used as a container: the roots of the sunflower interact with certain beneficial fungi, and when transplanting or picking, the fungal layer is disturbed, and this can lead to illness and death of the plant. Therefore, heliantemum is not propagated by dividing the bush, it is not dived or transplanted.
In the photo: How the sunflower blooms
Seeds are laid out in 2-3 pieces on the surface of a moist loose substrate and sprinkled with vermiculite or sand only slightly, then covered with a film and kept under bright diffused light at a temperature of 18-24 ˚C.
The peculiarity of this culture is that seedlings can appear both in a week and in a month, but as soon as this happens, the film is removed from the crops, and the temperature of the content is lowered to 15-16 ˚C. It has been noticed that sunflower seedlings develop better with a significant difference between day and night temperatures, which should be 4-5 degrees.
As soon as the seedlings grow up and get stronger, cut off weak specimens in each cup at surface level so that they do not interfere with the development of strong ones. Caring for sunflower seedlings consists of watering and gently loosening the soil around the seedlings.
Gypsophila is one of the most attractive plants used to decorate sunny flower beds and rock gardens. Kachim blooms for a long time, which increases the possibilities of arrangement. It is suitable for naturalistic, English and modern gardens.
In England, gypsophila has been cultivated since 1759. Its cloudy light inflorescences were complemented by bouquets of roses. The tradition has survived to this day.
Gypsophila will highlight the beauty of plants with larger flowers that bloom in July. Daylilies, lilies, roses look great in white clouds of gypsophila.
The maintenance-free, highly drought-resistant gypsophila is a valuable species used to decorate summer cottages, places that cannot be visited frequently. It is also a valuable home decoration.
This is one of the most popular types of cut flowers and for creating dry floristic compositions. In Europe, the industrial cultivation of gypsophila is especially developed in the Netherlands. Israel became an important supplier of gypsophila, where valuable varieties were developed (including Million Stars). Cut flowers of gypsophila are used as an addition to bouquets and other plant compositions - fresh and after drying, they can be colored.
Cut off shoots for bouquets should be when no more than half of the flowers are fully developed. At 4 ° C they can be stored for 1 week (in water). The flowers dry easily, which can be facilitated by soaking the sprouts with glycerin.
Florists have a secret - how to keep gypsophila flowers fresh for a long time. They cut flowers late in the evening and immediately put them on the garden bed in a container with not too cold water. The container is placed overnight in a dark, cool place.
Previously, the root was used to wash delicate fabrics. The saponins released from the root are used in foam fire extinguishers. Gypsophila is valued in beekeeping, a good honey plant.