The history of beans is almost 7 thousand years old. It belongs to the legume family, more than 250 species are currently known, but about 20 are most often used, which include the climbing one. The culture owes its rich history to an equally rich, very useful composition: a full set of vitamins, a huge range of micro and macroelements, fiber, carbohydrates, fats, pectin and a vegetable protein so necessary for a person, in terms of which it is second only to meat! What kind of beans we learn from the article.
There are many different types and varieties of this crop, but for any there are general rules for growing and care. Any type of beans is thermophilic, therefore, seeds should be planted in the first half of May, when the soil warms up to 12-14 degrees. For a faster germination, it is recommended to soak the seeds overnight in water, and just before sowing - for 5 minutes in a boric acid solution. This will strengthen seedlings, increase crop productivity.
Legumes have the ability to saturate the soil with nitrogen - nodule bacteria take it from the air, so the plant is a good precursor for many vegetable crops in the garden.
This species looks like small bushes up to 60cm high. It can grow in the shade of tall trees, between currant bushes, gooseberries, but you cannot shade too much - it will affect the yield. Planting depth - no more than 2 cm, otherwise the seeds will die even during the swelling in the soil. The plant loves soil fertilized with humus, reacts well to feeding with nutrients. It can be planted quite densely - rows at a distance of 30 cm, between seeds - 4-5 cm.
Bush beans require double hilling for greater stability. From the moment of emergence to the ripening of the tender green beans, it takes about 55 days. Pods, edible, very delicate in taste, fiberless, especially in sugar varieties.
Italians were the first to figure out how to use unripe pods from Europeans for food. Dishes made from green or yellow French beans have a surprisingly delicate taste, very low calorie content - only 25 kcal / 100g of product, a rich composition of vitamins and microelements (more than in grains), although the protein content is inferior to dry grains. Green beans produce excellent yields... Its benefits for the body are also difficult to overestimate:
Actually, all types of beans can be divided into bush and curly beans. The latter have especially many varieties.
The following characteristics are common to them:
Collecting the pods regularly throughout the summer stimulates the formation of new ovaries. With a small occupied space, the curly species of this culture gives an excellent harvest, if tied up in time, it performs a decorative function, so it can be planted near a fence, a gazebo, under a balcony. Growing conditions and useful properties are the same as in other types of culture.
This is a relatively recently bred variety of beans for consumption exclusively in green (unripe) form. The pods are green or yellow (depending on the variety), thin, 12-15 cm long, very delicate taste, juicy, sugar flesh, without coarse fibers. The bushes are low - from 30 to 70 cm, compact, but despite the size of the plant, they yield up to 1 kg of beans per season.
All varieties of beans are usually divided into sugar and semi-sugar beans. Sugar pods are intended for eating pods, which have a circular cross-section filled with a jelly-like substance. The semi-sugar pods are flatter, the jelly is much smaller than the former. Such varieties are universal: both pods and grain are suitable for consumption.
In order to have a good harvest all summer, you need to plant different varieties, taking into account their ripening terms - from early ripening varieties (65 days from germination to technical ripening) to late (100 days). Small bushes do not need props, are resistant to cold, early ripening.
In addition to the usual green and yellow green beans, plants with dark purple pods have taken root well in the gardens: Bluhilda variety (Germany), Violet King (Austria), etc. At first, the ovary on vines is of the usual green color, but when the pods reach a length of 10 cm, the color immediately changes to purple.
If you compare these two varieties, Bluhilda's pods are more fleshy, but before ripening, the valves coarse and fibers appear. Beige grains, oily, very tender and tasty, boil quickly. The beans of the Purple King are flat, less fleshy, but without a parchment layer, they are not inferior in taste to the first ones. During the cooking process, they change color to green.
Hulling varieties are grown exclusively for the production of grains, although they often ripen quite late.
For example, in central Russia, the grains of such varieties do not ripen, and the pods, even in the early stages of ripening, have a dense fibrous structure that is not suitable for human consumption.
But, of course, if you grow them in a warm climatic zone, you can get an excellent harvest of very nutritious, rich in vitamins and minerals, with a high protein content.
The most common varieties: Ballada, Rubin, Zolotistaya, Varvara, Generous, etc. They are valued for their high yield and taste.
The grains of such beans have a milky white color, a firm structure. The main advantage of white beans is their high protein content - 20%. In terms of benefits for the body, it is comparable only with beef protein, and, moreover, it is devoid of animal fat, which makes it difficult to assimilate such a vital substance for humans.
Red grains are low in calories (94 kcal), contain a large amount of vitamins B6, B12, B1, A, C, E, PP, amino acids, lysine, arginine, magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, etc. Due to such a rich chemical composition, red beans have a beneficial effect on the functioning of many organs and systems of the human body. - nervous, circulatory, gastrointestinal tract, strengthens the immune system, improves the condition of hair, teeth, skin.
The benefits of black grains are enhanced by the even greater concentration of all the ingredients that make up their composition.
The richer the color of the beans, the more nutrients it contains.
Black grains are most commonly found in Latin American dishes and are sweet and smoky. Black beans are the richest in chemical composition; in terms of nutritional and medicinal value, they rank first among the products of plant origin. Suffice it to say that black beans are the most useful food for the prevention of cancer and diabetes.
As you can see, the benefits of this product can hardly be overestimated. Eating beans at least twice a week in different forms - salads, first, second courses, etc. - will certainly have a beneficial effect on your body. Even outwardly, it will become noticeable - velvet skin, shiny hair, beautiful nails are provided to you with regular use of beans in general and black beans in particular.
An inexhaustible source of inspiration for decorating a backyard for gardeners is vegetable and herbaceous crops. They have a variety of shapes and colors, fit easily into landscape design and are not whimsical in everyday care. Such edible beauty can also bring practical benefits in the form of a rich harvest. Decorative curly beans, red and purple, are used for single and group plantings along fences and special trellises, It also finds a place in decorating balconies and loggias. Curly ornamental beans are a wealth and variety of varieties, types, colors. We'll talk about growing it from seeds later in the article, but for now, look at the most popular varieties in the photo:
Botanically, beans are a legume vegetable. The family includes about a hundred biological species and a huge number of varietal varieties. In addition, some types of peas also belong to the beans, mistakenly due to external similarity attributed to this family.
Mostly beans are grown for culinary purposes, but there are several dozen species that have decorative value. The main component of beans, from a culinary point of view, is their vegetable protein. The beans are called beans.
In some sources, beans are called seeds of plants of the legume family, extracted from the pods. In others, the whole pod with seeds. In this article, beans are directly referred to as seeds.
Depending on the internal structure of the pod, the entire range of representatives of this culture is divided into 3 large subgroups:
This is a very rough division, but it allows you to quickly and pragmatically assess for what purposes this or that variety is suitable. For example, asparagus sugar beans are eaten together with a pod, and even the best varieties of shelling beans cannot have this property, since their pods are too tough and unsuitable for food.
Bean varieties differ in a wide variety of characteristics. And the matter is not limited to one color or taste. They may have different ripening periods and growing conditions. Species can have completely different nutritional values and ratios of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Collection, storage and preparation conditions can also vary significantly.
The division of vegetable beans into varieties can be very arbitrary. Often, the same subspecies with different coloration can sometimes be classified as completely different. However, such questions are of little concern to the average consumer or gardener, and they are of interest exclusively to breeders. Below are descriptions of the different varieties of beans and their characteristic features are briefly listed.
Observing the recommendations for growing crops, you can get a storehouse of trace elements, vitamins and minerals without leaving the boundaries of your site.
Before sowing seeds, they need to be sorted out, removing sluggish, empty, damaged ones. The weight of the beans is determined by soaking in salted water - unusable specimens will float to the surface. It is recommended to keep the seed for 6 hours in warm water, 20 minutes in a manganese solution and 2 hours in a solution of wood ash. Then the beans are washed, slightly ventilated and only then are they planted in moist soil. Treatment with fungicides immediately before planting or short-term placement in a solution of boric acid + ammonium is not prohibited in order to prevent the appearance of the root weevil.
Sowing beans is carried out in the soil, warmed up to 12 degrees, to a depth of 10 cm. The air temperature should not fall below +15 degrees during the day, and the threat of night frosts has passed. Heat-loving climbing varieties are planted a week later than bush. The exact date is determined by the climatic conditions of the region.
The vegetable plant grows successfully when arranging artificial shortening of lighting by covering the ridges with an opaque material. Due to the short daylight hours (up to 12 hours), fruiting occurs more quickly, and the yield increases. It is important to follow these recommendations at the beginning of the growing season.
Many modern varieties of domestic selection are neutral to the length of daylight hours.
Breeders from different countries have developed many varieties of beans. They differ from each other in height, shape of bushes, color, size of fruits. The ripening time is constantly decreasing. From a huge number of hybrids, gardeners can choose the variety that will satisfy them in all respects.
There are many varieties of such a variety of beans, they differ in the shape of the bushes and the color of the grains, but in one they are identical - only ripe beans are eaten.
This group of plants consists of several varieties of beans that differ in color, but not in the shape of the beans. They all resemble a human kidney. Its seeds were brought to Europe by Spanish traders from Peru. Culture belongs to the common species. It is highly rated for its high protein content, good grain taste.
It differs from other species in the original color of legumes. On a pale pink background, there are blotches of various darker spots. Country of origin - Spain. Popular in Latin America and the USA. It is highly praised for its excellent taste and high protein and amino acid content. Used in dietetic food. Cooking time - up to 1.5 hours.
Semi-peeling plant with thin vines up to 2 m long. Bush forms with curly tops are also cultivated. Possesses a high degree of drought resistance. Bean pods have a parchment layer. The grain size reaches only 5-10 mm. In terms of protein content and useful microelements, it is inferior to other varieties.
Refers to varieties of early ripening. The bushes are compact, up to 60 cm high. The average length of the pods is up to 15 cm. The grains are white with a dark pattern in the form of a bird's wing. The plant is thermophilic, suitable for growing in warm climates or in greenhouses. Seeds are planted on open beds at a temperature not lower than 14-15 ° C.
The growing season of the variety is up to 100 days. The bushes are low, from 45 to 60 cm, not prone to lodging, resistant to drought and some viral and fungal diseases: bacteriosis, anthracnose. Pods are straight up to 15 cm long. The color of the grains is brown, reminiscent of the color of chocolate. Beans contain up to 25% protein and trace elements: magnesium, iron, potassium.
The height of the bush is no more than 35 cm. Refers to the grain species. The inner surface of the valves is covered with a parchment layer. The color of the grains is two-color: white is the main color, on the top there is a bright red speck in the form of a cap. The variety is mid-season, the growing season to market maturity is about 110 days.
A curly plant with vines up to 4 meters long, which require support. The pods are large (15-18 cm) with 3-4 white beans.
Frost resistance is low, the air temperature for germination must be at least 12 ° C.
The variety is valued for its high content of protein and trace elements necessary for humans. Used in cooking for the preparation of dietary meals.
The variety is resistant to low temperatures, germinates even at + 8 ° C. The bushes are low, up to 50-60 cm. The growing season is short, from the emergence of seedlings to the ripening of the first fruits, no more than 60 days pass. The grains are red with white spots and have a pleasant taste. They are used to prepare dietary meals.
The bushes are undersized, up to 60 cm high. The leaves are triangular or rounded. The color of the grains is red with white strokes. The variety is resistant to low temperatures, but does not tolerate drought. The yield is high - 25 kg / ha. Has excellent taste.
The plant is cultivated as a low-growing bush up to 45 cm high. Only grains of the original spotted color are eaten. They have two primary colors - black and white in the form of spots of various shapes.
This group of plants includes sugar and semi-sugar varieties of bush or climbing varieties of culture. Their fruits are harvested from the bushes in the early stages of ripening, they are eaten with pods and grains of milk ripeness.
This variety is cultivated in the form of low bushes with yellow pods. The size of the fruit is 10 cm, the number of grains in it is about 8 pieces. The fruits are harvested and eaten at the earliest stages of ripening, when they are tender and juicy in taste. At this stage, the pods contain many nutrients. They can be eaten raw or stewed.
This variety can be attributed to both asparagus and grain varieties of beans. At the stage of "milky" ripeness, pods and grains are eaten. At full maturity, only beans can be eaten.
This plant, or rather one of its varieties, is native to Asia. The main morphological indicators for all varieties are high stems up to 4-5 meters and long serpentine pods.
In some cases, bush-shaped varieties are cultivated: Mash, Katyang, Korean beans, Azuki. Bushes with small vines - Macaretti and Darla varieties.
Varieties of later ripening periods are curly or ornamental forms: Countess, Chinese, Japanese, long-fruited black.
The length of the lashes of bush beans can be up to five meters. Fences are twisted with such vines, they are allowed on the walls of houses, outbuildings, gazebos and pergolas. But you can limit yourself to ordinary props with a slingshot at the end, the height of such supports should be about two meters.
The peculiarities of growing bush varieties include:
Depending on the form in which the beans are eaten, the varieties of this culture are divided into:
Asparagus beans are eaten along with the pods. Such varieties are also called sugar varieties. The seed capsule of these beans is soft, without hard parchment walls between the grains. Harvested unripe beans, when the pods are still tender and soft. After fully ripening, the beans inside the pod become the same as those of the grain varieties, only smaller.
Semi-sugar varieties have tender pods when unripe. But if you lose sight of the beans a little and pick the asparagus at the wrong time, the seed pods will become as tough as those of the grain varieties. In this case, the beans can be eaten in the same way as regular beans.
Grain varieties are also called shelling varieties, because the pods are husked in order to extract ripe beans from them. Such beans are used boiled, and the fruits need to be cooked for a long time, at least two hours.
You can grow any of three types of beans on climbing bushes: both pods and beans grow well here. It remains only to choose a good variety of fruiting vine.
Purple curly bush: these beans surprise with purple pods, the same beans and even leaves. The bush also blooms in dark purple. It is better to grow "Blauhilda" in a warm climate, for central Russia it is better to choose a seedling method or plant beans in heifers. The ripening period is 90 to 110 days, so beans may simply not ripen in a short summer.
The bushes begin to bloom very quickly, their flowering continues until the autumn cold. Therefore, there are always fresh pods on the bean bushes - it bears fruit all season.
The variety is considered asparagus, the length of the pods reaches 23 cm. Fresh pods are colored purple, but after cooking they turn green. If not harvested on time, asparagus can get a little tough. In this case, you can eat the beans themselves, because they are also very tasty - large, oily, beige.
The basis for "Blauhilda" must be solid, because the bushes reach a length of three to four meters, have quite powerful shoots with many fruits. This plant will be an excellent decoration for the garden and vegetable garden.
This variety is also called fiery red beans. The bushes of this beans look very impressive: thin whips, up to four meters long, with many small bright scarlet flowers.
In Russia, this variety is found more often than others, because it is very unpretentious. The only thing that the "Winner" is afraid of is frost, even with slight frosts the plant dies.
The beans of this beans are used for food, they are painted in a light purple hue with black specks. There are several varieties of the variety, they all bloom in different shades and have beans of different colors.
Bean pods of the Pobeditel variety can also be eaten. But before that, they must be boiled, like the beans. The fact is that beans contain toxins, and when cooked, they are quickly neutralized.
The taste of beans is average, so they are most often grown for decorative purposes.
This climbing bush is not very tall - its height reaches a maximum of 150 cm. The plant is decorated with large dark purple flowers. The fruits of the variety are pods, up to 15 cm long, the shape of which resembles a tube.
The variety belongs to the early maturing, asparagus can be eaten already on the 55-60th day after sowing beans in the soil. Beans are also eaten, they are painted white and have excellent taste.
The Purple Lady differs from the Blauhilda variety in more graceful shoots and higher yield.
The variety is considered semi-sugar - you can eat asparagus and beans. Beans begin to bear fruit on the 65th day after planting, fruiting continues until the first frost.
Gardeners love "Harmony" for its unpretentiousness, good germination and stable yield. Bean pods are golden in color, and you can eat them, and the beans themselves, which are colored white.
From each bush, 300-500 grams of beans are harvested. The weight of the lashes is large enough, so the vines need to be tied up on reliable supports, because their length reaches four meters.
Beans are unique in this variety - their size is five to six times the average size of beans. The variety belongs to the peeling variety, it is also distinguished by the excellent taste of the fruits, which have a very delicate and thin peel.
The pods of these beans are not eaten - they are too tough. But the beans can be added to borscht, lobio, canned or stewed - they have a unique, very delicate taste.
Each green pod, the length of which does not exceed 14 cm, contains only 3-5 beans. The variety begins to bear fruit not very early - on the 70th day after sowing the seeds into the soil.
The decorative qualities of the vines are also high - the length of the lashes is about four meters, the bushes are powerful and strong. Beans bloom with snow-white flowers, which the bush is literally dotted with.
The fiery color of the inflorescences, the delicious asparagus and the powerful climbing vine made the Italian variety one of the most popular in Russia. At the beginning of the growing season, bean pods are colored green, have a size of about 14 cm, flattened shape. After some time, a beautiful marble pattern appears on the pods, they become variegated. Each box contains four beans. It is better to collect grains in an unripe form, so they are more tender, quickly boil down, and have a slightly nutty flavor. When fully ripe, the white beans also develop a mottled pattern.
It is recommended to eat "Berlotto" as long as the grains are colored uniform green. You can harvest the fruits 60 days after disembarkation. Even earlier, you can eat the pods of these curly beans - they are tasty in an unripe state, until the green color changes to a speckled one.
This Asian beauty is quite whimsical and capricious, but the bushes of this plant can become a decoration of any site. Beans are a subspecies of asparagus and have a very high yield.
The average pod of "Vigna" is one meter long. Climbing bushes reach three meters in height. The plant blooms only at night, the flowers are painted in a purple hue. During the day, the flowers are closed and their color is changed to yellow-brown.
About 200 beans can be harvested from each bean bush. You can eat asparagus and the beans themselves, which are colored white. You can easily recognize the fruits of "Vigna" by the dark speck on the side of the beans.
These beans are classified as asparagus varieties, their pods reach a length of 25 cm, painted in a yellow-golden color. The variety is considered early maturing, the fruits ripen on the 60th day after planting.
You should eat unripe pods and Golden Nectar beans before they become too tough.
In India, the fruits of this variety, which is a variety of "Vigna", are eaten and considered a delicacy. Whereas in Russia this beans are still grown only for decorative purposes. True, some gardeners feed the beans to livestock or use them as green manure.
Depending on the variety, Dolichosa vines can be purple, red or green. The whips reach a height of four meters. Bean inflorescences are not only beautiful, they exude a delicate, pleasant aroma.
The pods adorn the vines until the first autumn frosts, they are colored in different shades, like the flowers of "Dolichos" - it depends on the type of beans.
Historians found the first mention of green beans in Chinese written sources dating back to the 2nd millennium BC. But the oldest material artifacts were found on the other side of the world - in South America. Here, bean plants were cultivated by the Inca and Aztec tribes, as evidenced by the fossilized seeds.
Italians were the first to breed green beans. And then the fashion for dishes from thick juicy shoulder blades passed to France and spread throughout the Old World.
True, if hearty dishes made from beans were soon considered food for the common people, then pods with thick juicy walls and barely formed seeds turned out to be food for the nobility. The fact is that the blades remained tender for a very short time, and then, with the beginning of the development and maturation of seeds, the inner surface of the valves was covered with a hard parchment layer. It is not always possible to collect milk ripeness beans with soft pods from the garden.
Over time, as new varieties appeared, there was a division into:
According to the shape of plants, when classifying varieties, beans are divided into bush and climbing.
Curly beans, depending on the variety, can form whips up to 5 meters long, therefore, when grown, they require strong supports or trellises.
The asparagus bean shown in the photo, a climbing variety is more laborious to maintain and did not ripen as early as the bush variety, but the growing season in this case is longer, as is the number of pods from one plant.
In addition, the plants are extremely effective and can be used as decorative beans for landscaping the walls of buildings, fences and other vertical surfaces.
The color of green beans, as in the photo, depending on the variety, is white, yellowish, light or bright green, variegated, purple and even almost black. The same variety is in the color of seeds that ripen in pods by autumn.
This classification is true for both the American genus Phaseolus and the Asiatic Vigna, although the pods are strikingly different in appearance.
However, along with the external similarities, there are many differences between the species and varieties of Asian and American green beans. The main thing is:
Today, there are many varieties of this type of green beans around the world, and the photo shows one of the most beloved in the United States.
These are Yardlong beans, which have long become an equivalent substitute for the usual green beans and produce delicious meter-long pods.
Such a culture can produce pods not only of traditional green color, but also burgundy or purple. Red cowpea beans are no less popular and interesting to grow.
The genus Vigna includes Asian types of beans - mung bean, urd, adzuki.
Urd, also called black mash because of the color of medium-sized seeds, has been known in culture for about 4 thousand years. This type of black bean is widespread in the south and southeast of Asia.
The plant is an annual, herbaceous shrub with a height of 20 to 80 cm. The resulting pods are very small, only 4–7 cm in length, covered with hard pile. Both young shoulder blades and mature seeds are eaten.
Among the species and varieties of this green beans, as in the photo, there are plants that are extremely spectacular. This is the caracal cowpea, originating from South America and in the European part grown as indoor or garden, ornamental beans.
At the time of flowering, plants up to 7 meters in height are covered with racemose inflorescences of variegated snail-like flowers, which makes this variety of climbing beans very attractive for amateur gardening.
If you want to get long cowpea pods on your site that do not have a coarse layer and are eaten without harm even in their raw form, it is not difficult at all. Russian breeders are already offering gardeners the first varieties of this type of green beans, which are no different in photo and taste, and even surpass Chinese and Japanese plants in endurance.
The curly beans are quite vigorous. Shoots climb to a height of 3 meters, so support is essential for cultivation. The pods are light green, rough, dense, do not have coarse fibers at the time of milky-wax ripeness. Ripening at the end of the growing season, after 55-60 days, the seeds are round-oval, small, brownish-purple.
These green beans taste great both raw and cooked. Young beans can be used to prepare a wide variety of dishes and harvested for future use by freezing and canning.
The length of the pods of this variety of cowpea beans, as in the photo, reaches 30–35 cm. Beans with a slight bend, light green valves and brown seeds, ripening in 60–65 days.
This is a variety of curly beans with vigorous growth and excellent taste of the shoulder blades, retaining flavor and color even when frozen. Versatility of use, unpretentiousness to growing conditions and decent yield. In addition to varieties with green pods, there are red and purple cowpea beans, whose shoulder blades are colored in different shades of purple.
For American or common beans, familiar to consumers in Russia and European countries, beans with wider and shorter wings are characteristic. Such pods often have a pointed nose, and they themselves may not be cylindrical, but flattened.
Among the varieties of green beans, the most appreciated are those that form smooth, dense cylindrical pods with thick walls. These are asparagus beans without parchment inclusions inside the shoulder blades and small seed ovaries.
In addition to such varieties, gardeners are offered versatile plants, the valves of which coarsen as the nutritious seeds of various colors and shapes mature. Bean pods can be green or white, variegated, yellow or purple.
In this case, purple and red beans, during heat treatment, lose their original color and the blades turn green.
Harvesting bush beans are modest in size. The bush barely reaches 50 cm in height. But at the same time, the plant invariably produces a lot of high-quality gourmet beans, close to a cylindrical shape. The pod length is from 12 to 15 cm, the color of the valves is green. They ripen in 48-50 days from the beginning of the growing season.
The seeds of this bean are white, oblong-oval in shape. Beans for universal use, suitable for canning and freezing.
An early variety of green beans, purple beans with a high yield and a good taste of bright pods. The multipurpose plant serves as a source of both dietary shoulder blades and mature white beans.
A mid-season variety of bush beans with dark, almost black pods, up to 15–17 cm long. The blades are tender, crunchy, without coarse fibers. Bush beans are hardy, tolerate dry periods and temporary cold weather well.
Hardy bushes of this variety can withstand a load of 50-60 growing beans of an unusual variegated color. The seeds ripening inside the pods are also variegated, of decent quality and nutritional value. Young shoulder blades are tender, full-length and contain a lot of protein and fiber. The multipurpose bush bean variety is unpretentious and stands out for its excellent yield.
A very early variety of curly beans with delicate cylindrical pods up to 16 cm long. Inside the beans, at the end of the growing season, small white beans ripen, also suitable for food. The plant is tall, demanding on lighting conditions, watering and nutrition. Readily responds to care with a bountiful harvest.
The ripening period of the seeds of this variety is 55–65 days. On the bushes of this variety of green beans, numerous light yellow beans are formed, up to 14 cm long. The pods are cylindrical, with a pointed tip and completely devoid of fibers and parchment inclusions. Plants are bush-shaped, compact, willingly and amicably bearing fruit.
A characteristic feature of this variety of bush beans is early maturity and black glossy seeds that ripen inside yellow or waxy round beans.
The length of the gourmet pods is 14–16 cm. Like the young shoulder blades, black beans are cookable, tasty and contain many valuable nutrients.
Plants are resistant to common diseases, hardy and productive.