Persimmon, still called Plaquemine in Korea (persimmon for the tree), China and Japan, is the preferred fruit in these countries, where locals consume it naturally as a fruit and also but more rarely cooked. The persimmon was formerly called fig cape. This fruit comes from persimmon, the shrub is distinguished by its dimensions: 5 to 10 meters high with broad, oval leaves that change colors with the seasons, they are blushing green in autumn.
We distinguish the genus of persimmon trees thanks to their flowers grouped in bouquet at the tree at Male khaki ; flowers in white, yellow or green colors. On the other hand, thefemale tree, prefers that her flowers play the stars, flowers are isolated well greater.
If he is very cultivated in Japan, his country of origin, where he is practically worshiped, it is not for nothing! It is because persimmon has hidden virtues that we invite you to discover. As a taste, did you know that Japan is the country with more than 100-year-old men? So, is it the result of chance? The pun is good, right? Well !
Diospyros kaki - Persimmon Tree - Persimmon
• Cycle: Perennial
• Hardiness: Rustic plant
• Plant: Fruit shrub (Plaqueminier)
• Foliage: Lapsed
• Type of plant: Fruit tree
• Family: Ebenaceae
• Harbor : Shrub plant
• Harmfulness: The skin of Persimmon is toxic to health. It should absolutely not be eaten.
• Flowering: Mid-May to July
• The "Persimmon tree" or persimmon tree is hardy, it resists cold down to -15 to -18 ° C
• In some varieties, the ovary must have been fertilized to develop into fruit
• For other varieties it turns into fruit without pollination, this is the parthenocarpy. The fruits produced in this case are "seedless", that is to say without seeds.
• Fast growing plant
• More than 2,800 varieties of persimmon
Very rich in vitamins, a persimmon can weigh over 500 grams. Its very soft flesh sometimes contains seeds. The fruit is covered with a skin which becomes almost translucent when ripe and thus stands out for its superb orange color. Even if it reaches maturity, the fruit does not fall off on its own and remains clinging to the tree. The fruits are very fragile once ripe, in fact, it is better not to let it ripen too much on the tree and rather to pick it early, keeping it wrapped in paper protected from insects and light for the let it slowly reach maturity.
Persimmon is appreciated for its taste but that is not its only quality:
• Persimmon is good for health, it is rich in vitamins and trace elements: carotenes, lycopenes, xanthines, rich in vitamins: provitamin A, iron and vitamin C.
• It is low in calories: 127 cal. per 100 g. (Sources: USDA US Department of Agriculture)
• Finally, persimmon is quite rich in fiber, which is very interesting, because foods rich in fiber are more filling than others ... it is therefore perfectly appropriate to eat it to satisfy your hunger without gaining pounds. This is generally true for fruit!
Is this the secret to longevity? Maybe… Like J. Chirac, I would say: “Eat Persimmons”!
Everything depends on the culture of origin of Persimmon, if the fruits were obtained there by fertilization, the stones will be there, on the other hand, if the tree is "self-fertilized", there will be no seeds. /core.
A word from the amateur gardener:
Do you know what pomology is:
Pomology is the science of fruit. It is a branch of arboriculture specially devoted to fruits and fruit trees. The pomologue is the specialist who deals with this issue, who does his research and observations.
H. Harold Hume, a pomologist known for his work in particular on the cultivation of persimmon in Japan, thus conducted research on the pollination of persimmon (persimmon tree) and proved that it had a decisive impact on the quantity of fruit production. .
H. Harold Hume has shown that the best varieties need pollination. Without pollination, the flowers fall and the harvest is non-existent or even nil. Professor H. Harold Hume also shows that there are varieties which produce fruit without pollination. These fruits are "parthenocarpic", ie seedless. Usually these varieties are very fertile and very productive. Unlike male and female varieties which can have uneven yields from year to year, depending on pollination and growing conditions.
H. Harold Hume was also interested in the geographical conditions for planting persimmon. And he indicated that in the hottest and drier countries, the Mediterranean basin, California, hot regions of China, pollination was not very important and that the productions were generally good. On the contrary, in areas with a colder and more humid climate, pollination is often obligatory.
He also showed that where male flowers were locally numerous, pollination and harvests were excellent. In the USA "GAILEY" is an introduced variety, it has an important flowering capacity, which allows to increase pollination and harvests.
Persimmon seeds can have different sizes depending on the variety they are from, here they are about 2.5 to 3 centimeters.
So that the seeds reach a good germination capacity, they must be stratified. It is a cold stratification between 3 ° C and 5 ° C for 4 months or 120 days for sowing in spring or at 18/20 ° C max. This is an operation that takes place in nature, but here we are interested in you who have been able to collect seeds or who are going to buy them.
The stratification is there to "damage" the envelope of the seeds, this envelope is precisely there to allow the seed not to rot during the winter. This envelope, subjected to bad weather, is gradually damaged. At the end of 120 days it is ready to germinate. Obviously, there is a certain amount of "rubbish", meaning seeds which will not resist or which will be devoured.
Depending on the region where you live, more or less hot, you can stratify the seeds in the garden or not.
First, calculate well so that the 4 months is when you can produce the seedlings.
• Prepare a mixture of peat and river sand.
• Make it homogeneous by mixing it well.
• Choose an earthen pot with a drainage hole
• Fill it to 1/3 and place a few seeds.
• Add mixture, place some seeds.
• Repeat the operation to finish with the mixture, without exceeding 4 layers.
• Then bury the pot flush with the ground at the bottom of a cold wall (to the north) not very exposed to rain (not under a gutter for example.
• You can also plan for a larger pot and not bury it.
• Proceed in the same way, placing the seeds in the center of the pot.
A word from the amateur gardener:
• ideally, there should be at least 15 days in the stratification period below "0".
• In the event of a dry winter check the humidity level and water lightly if necessary. The sand / peat mixture can be slightly damp but not wet.
• Beware of the damage that could be done to the seeds, by the trampling children playing in the garden, for example. Or by small rodents. Place a small screen on top of the pot. Above the fence, you can also place a mulch, which will prevent overflow of water during rainy periods.
This is a method that is often reserved for fairly small seeds (berries) or areas where it is mild with an insufficiently harsh winter to allow seed stratification.
• Fill a freezer bag or freezer box with sand.
• Add the persimmon seeds and mix to distribute them in the sand.
• Moisten the sand and close the bag (or box) well.
• Place the bag in the bottom of the refrigerator.
• Occasionally check that the sand is still wet.
• Sometimes a slight smell of alcohol may appear, it is that fermentation has started, this phenomenon occurs when the sand is too wet and the seeds lack oxygen. In this case, open the bag, stir the mixture with the seeds, leave the bag open for a few minutes.
• Then close and put back in the refrigerator.
• Spring, from March to April.
• Sowing is also possible in autumn, from the month of September and October.
How to grow persimmon? Even, is it possible to sow persimmon?
These are questions you ask yourself whenever you feel like it ...
Under certain conditions heat, light, watering: yes, we can sow persimmon, but, you have to find the seeds first. You may have noticed, if you eat persimmon: there are not often, there are rarely even persimmon seeds in the fruit. If you are lucky enough to find some, there is a preparation to follow, follow the information below. But be careful, results are not guaranteed, just follow the method and if you can't sow it, then don't give up and plant one!
• First, you need the seeds;), a transparent plastic bag with a zip, a plate of glass or plexiglass, peat and sand.
• Prepare a mixture of 2/3 peat and 1/3 sand.
• Moisten it. The mixture should be moist but not wet.
• In the bag, make a "mattress" with the peat / sand mixture about 5 cm thick.
• Place the seeds halfway up and close the zipped bag tightly.
• Place the bag on the glass plate in front of a natural light source.
• The seeds should be placed in the light and at a temperature of about 25 ° C.
• Regularly check for the appearance of roots by looking under the glass plate.
• When the roots appear, it is time to put in the cups.
A word from the amateur gardener:
It is possible to stratify the seeds in sand or very dry potting soil, for sowing in the fall ... But be careful of the rotting of the seeds, if there was humidity. Success is not guaranteed, see comments below.
• Use peat cups
• Fill them with a mixture of 2/3 potting soil and 1/3 peat.
• Dig a hole with 2 fingers and place the seeds with part of the peat / sand mixture. The idea here is not to damage the roots by leaving them in the soil in which they grew.
• Cover with potting soil.
• Water. (wet earth)
• Keep them still indoors to avoid cold snaps.
• Replant them in the ground when the plant is about 10 to 15 cm in size.
• Plant the persimmon tree from January to March in areas where it does not frost.
• Usually persimmon can be planted all year round outside of periods of drought or extreme cold.
• Sun, and sheltered from the wind.
• In an area north of the Loire, the Kaki tree grows better protected by a south-facing wall.
• A very draining soil, because persimmon does not like standing water.
• Slightly acidic or neutral pH ... This is the ideal soil for growing persimmon.
5 to 7 meters in all directions. But limiting its size can make harvesting easier.
• Prepare the planting hole at least a few weeks in advance.
• Loosen but do not turn over the soil and amend with a well-decomposed basic manure.
• In the case of buying a tree in a garden center, favor planting a bare root tree rather than a container plant, whose often constrained roots are less well developed and will involve at least a start of growth. more difficult, depending on the planting period ...
• Branches should be pruned to leave only those that start from the trunk. Shorten them to 1/3 to promote branching.
• Lightly refresh it, that is, cut the roots a few centimeters, especially the damaged parts.
• Soak them for a few hours (at least 2 hours) in "praline" to facilitate recovery: "praline" is a mixture of soil from your garden, water and manure *, a kind of nourishing mud. It will get around the roots and facilitate the recovery of the shrub once planted.
* You can find bagged manure in garden centers.
• Immerse the pot in water for at least half an hour, or water it very thoroughly.
• Prepare the roots by removing any damaged ones and scratching the edges so that they take up their place more easily in the new soil.
• Dig a hole large enough to install the roots without bending them.
• Bury the roots just below the surface of the earth. Install a good stake and possibly a garden drain.
• Recap so that the soil is returned to its original order, bottom soil first (bottom), until the surface soil returns to its original place.
• Tamp well.
• Work the surrounding soil with a spade-fork, without turning over the soil just by aerating it. This additional work will allow the roots of the Persimmon to grow easier. This tillage is all the more important if the soil in your garden is clayey or with heavy soil, in short, a soil with a high density, which is not really suitable for persimmon.
• Water very heavily.
• The first year plantation, it is important ofwater the persimmon tree well enough. Every 2 or 3 days from spring and summer, as soon as the rains decrease.
Quickly: The idea here is to structure the young persimmon or persimmon tree in such a way as to allow good fruiting. Persimmon trees grown in a "full-blown shape" need to be pruned every 3 or 4 years. Dead branches should be removed like those that intersect or grow into the interior of the tree. Persimmon supports large pruning because it is able to develop new shoots on branches of large diameter.
• Identify 4 or 5 beautiful branches to keep (carpenter branches).
• Choose the branches so that the tree is well balanced.
• Cut off the others.
These sizes will have to be made during harvest or picking or just after :
• From December to February for most varieties.
• In late autumn for early persimmons also depending on the harvest
• Cut the main branches a short yard from the trunk, below one eye.
• Remove new branches that have appeared on the trunk.
• And remove any branches that grow inside the persimmon tree.
• As with the apple tree, above all, what we are looking for here is good air circulation in the tree, and strengthening the supporting branches.
• The tree size should be limited to 3m to allow easy harvesting.
• Generally persimmon trees are very generous in fruit.
If one asks the question, it is quite possible to drive the persimmon tree in trellising. This is more precise pruning than full wind pruning and should start at an early age in order to use the life forces of the tree for the development of "driven" structural branches.
• Trellising control allows you to define the size of the tree for ease of harvesting.
• Pruning should be done every year in November.
• The first years, it is necessary to form the carpenter branches of structure, by leading them on a wooden structure.
• Shorten the branches and guide them in order to evenly distribute the branches on the trellis surface.
• Then limit the twigs to 4 or 5 eyes.
Persimmon blooms from the second part of the May and until month of July.
Flowering is different depending on the gender of the tree, male or female.
They are larger than the male flowers and they are isolated. They can have 4 sepals and 4 petals, or 5 sepals and 4 petals, on the same tree. They are cream, white, slightly yellow.
They are grouped together on thick stems. Persimmon flowers are smaller than female flowers. The flowers are cream, yellow or green.
• Harvesting usually occurs after the first frosts but there are early varieties that can be harvested from October until January.
• For other varieties, as long as the fruit has not been "frozen", it is not safe to eat because it is astringent. The fruits are therefore eaten very ripe, after the first frost, this is where the fruits take on all their flavors.
Kaki Persimon is a fruit harvested in autumn, made from the same variety as the traditional "Rojo Brillante" - Rouge Brillante - a variety from the region of Valencia in Spain, the "Ribera del Xuquer". These Persimmons have superb taste qualities and also health (vitamin A, fiber content…). They have also obtained a Controlled Designation of Origin (AOC).
Persimon khaki can be eaten firm, “non-overripe” like traditional persimmon. The fruits of this persimmon do not need the frost period to suppress "astringency." In fact, it is a process of elimination to which the fruits are subjected. It is this process that eliminates astringency to almost 100%. It is a process similar to that of bananas and other fruits.
The Kaki Persimon evolves, like the others, according to its maturity: clearer when it is just ripe, and, more and more red ...
• The multiplication of Persimmon is done mainly by sowing as you read above or by graft.
Persimmon cuttings, while not impossible, are very difficult. It is also very limited in percentage of success.
Persimmon grafts are performed "single or double slot graft" (2 grafts on the same rootstock branch) or "escutcheon graft". Ideally on a medium persimmon, Diospyros Virginiana, from seedlings, said to be the best of rootstocks.
A word from an amateur gardener: Seedlings are sometimes reserved for rootstock production, as persimmon seedlings do not always faithfully produce the expected tree variety. But for us home gardeners, the experience of successfully growing from seed is almost stronger than getting exactly the strain we expect.
So are we taking the risk? It's not risk, it's fun!
Persimmon is a tree not very sensitive to diseases. Most often, the fruits can be infested with a parasite. According to the host, the fruit turns brown or dries up. Some pests can not only harm crops and in case of heavy infestation the crop can be lost.
The collar disease is well known to gardeners, it affects in particular rosaceae, it is found on roses, apple trees, raspberries or Ericaceae such as shrub blueberries among others. It is a disease caused by bacteria (Bacterium tumefaciens). Usually it is already injured trees / shrubs that are infected. Hence the importance of cleaning your pruning tools well so as not to be the vector of propagation yourself.
Before the tree is sick, a preventive treatment based on Bordeaux mixture maybe consider.
The tree shrinks, its color changes, both the wood and the leaves. If the tree is already in bad shape and the disease advanced, he will be very difficult to cure it. it might need to be cut and burned.
• Gently scrape the base of the tree to reach the roots.
• Check their condition.
• When cleaning the soil between the surface roots, we can sometimes discover that an insect (wireworm, mole cricket) is gnawing at the roots.
• If this is the case, try as often as possible to renew the soil between the roots. complete this cleaning with a sprinkle of nettle manure, which could strengthen the tree's defenses.
• As a preventive treatment, Bordeaux mixture spray, in winter.
This Mediterranean fly is really devastating, it is native to the Mediterranean area, also called orange fly. Vernacular names: Mediterranean fruit fly, Mediterranean fly, fruit fly, orange fly, ceratite*. (src wikipedia)
• It appears more in summer, and sometimes earlier when temperature conditions allow.
• She lays her eggs under the skin of the fruit.
• During the cycle, black spots appear on the skin of the fruit, where the egg develops to the larva.
• When the eggs reach term, larvae emerge (3 days after laying).
• The larvae will feed on the flesh of the fruit for 10 to 12 days.
• The fruit turns brown, a sign of rotting.
• The larvae will transform into a pupa, a kind of cocoon, it is the intermediate stage between the larva and the adult insect, the transformation lasts from 10 days at the height of summer and up to 20 days during the period. of autumn.
• Throughout the summer, if left unchecked, successive generations of flies, up to 3, can wreak havoc on production.
You should know that it is always better to act before you see anything. Act as a precaution. Because when the fly is installed, it is more difficult to fight and get rid of it.
It's a bit the same operation as for the wasp traps, glass jars in which we place sugar water and vinegar, or beer, with a specific cover that allows insects to pass but not to come out. .
It's the same principle, except that instead of sugar water, we put pheromone plates in it, that you will find in shops. which will attract insects, especially females, and trap them.
In both cases, they must be placed early, and checked often. First of all to observe or not the presence of the insect and possibly the importance of its presence in order to intensify the fight if necessary.
Remove the affected ones that are still on the tree, and destroy them ! Do not throw them in the compost or elsewhere in the garden, even very far away. Never leave fruit on the ground. They contain the larvae or pupae which will give rise to flies. Destroy them too.
• Placing chickens near the orchard can be a good idea. Indeed, they can carry out an additional cleaning by feeding on the larvae which may be present in the soil.
The drosophila melanogaster is a well-known fly in the habitat. It is sometimes found in damp places, such as in bathrooms or kitchens. It is an apathetic, harmless fly that can be easily got rid of by cleaning the siphons in the house because that is where it thrives. But in the orchard, things are different. The cellar fly or wine fly is mainly present in quantity, where wine is grown and can cause damage.
• The fly lays its eggs in a specific place, under the calyx. As soon as the flies develop, the fruit dries up.
Again it is always better to act before seeing anything.
They will make it possible to measure their presence and take action in the event of an infestation. Instead of the beer offered for ceratite, here add wine inside the trap.
Mealybugs are well known to gardeners. It is relatively recent that it attacked the Khaki. There are many organic "treatments". The big question is the power of the infestation. The more important it is, the harder the fight will be.
As soon as he is present:
• Make a mixture of soapy water (washing-up liquid), 90 ° 10% alcohol.
• Mix well.
• Treat directly with a brush on mealybugs.
• Repeat the operation after 30 minutes.
• Leave to act and then rinse.
Persimmon, how to grow it?
Persimmon: all the information to grow a persimmon tree from seed to tree, how to sow persimmon, how and where to plant it, what exposure, what soil, when to harvest ....