The excellent taste and presentation of the Marble pear have created a good reputation for it in a wide range of consumers. The extensive area of admission attracts gardeners from many parts of the country. When choosing a variety for planting, you should familiarize yourself with the characteristics of this wonderful pear, the conditions for its successful cultivation and the rules of care.
The variety is quite old, isolated in 1938 in the Voronezh region. In 1947 it was transferred for state variety trials and only in 1965 it was included in the State Register for the Central, Central Black Earth, Volgo-Vyatka and Lower Volga regions. Obtained by crossing the varieties Bere Zimnyaya Michurina and Lesnaya Krasavitsa. The latter was widely used as an initial form for breeding because of its high yield, winter hardiness, durability, and undemanding care. Bere winter Michurina, in general, cannot boast of positive qualities, but the result of crossing is surprisingly decent.
The tree at Marble is medium-sized with a wide-pyramidal crown, reaching a height of 4 meters. The tendency to thicken is medium. Shoot formation is weak. The color of the bark of the trunk and skeletal branches is greenish-gray, the shoots are reddish-brown. The bark is covered with small, barely visible lenticels. Fruiting on ringlets, which are located on branches at the age of two to four years.
Ringlets are the shortest of the overgrowing twigs, have a well-developed flower bud and ribbed bark.
Ringlets are the shortest of the overgrown branches, have a well-developed flower bud and ribbed bark
Average winter hardiness, above average in southern latitudes. With recurrent frosts, there are cases of severe freezing of flower buds. Drought resistance is insufficient, with a lack of moisture, there is an increased shedding of fruits. The variety is relatively resistant to scab, according to VNIISPK (All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Breeding Fruit Crops) - highly resistant. And also high resistance is noted to powdery mildew. The early fruiting rate, according to the State Register, is above average; according to VNIISPK, it begins to bear fruit 6–7 years after vaccination (or 4–5 years after planting, if the seedling is two years old).
Some sources note the high self-fertility of the Marble pear, but still recommend cross-pollination with pears of the Chizhovskaya, Tatyana and Lada varieties. It should be noted that Marble blooms somewhat earlier than other varieties of pears.
The yield is high and regular. The average yield is from 160 to 240 c / ha, the maximum was observed in the amount of 420 c / ha. It is removed in late August and early September, consumption can continue until mid-October. Transportability and keeping quality of fruits are high, they have an excellent presentation. The shelf life of freshly picked fruits reaches 60–70 days.
Fruits are round-conical in shape of medium size. Weight from 120 to 160 grams, according to VNIISPK - 160–170 grams. The skin is thick and smooth. It has a greenish-yellow basic color with rusty, well-visible subcutaneous punctures. Most of the fruit has a brownish red or marbled blush. The pulp is juicy, coarse-grained, melting, tender, sweet and very tasty. Its color is from white to cream. The fruits have a pronounced pear aroma. Tasting score - 4.8 points. Dessert fruits.
Most of the fruit of the Marble pear has a brown-red or marbled blush.
In order for the marble pear to grow well and give high yields of large and tasty fruits, you need to take care of a suitable planting site for it. Such a place can be located on a small southern or southwestern slope with deep groundwater and no water accumulation. A pear will respond well to the presence of natural protection from cold winds and drafts from the north or north-east side. These can be walls of buildings, fences, dense trees, from which a pear should be planted at some distance. They should provide protection from the wind, but at the same time not create a thick shade in which the pear will not bloom. The soil for Marble needs loose, drained soil with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. On alkaline soils, pears get sick.
A small slope and protection from dense trees, combined with good illumination. Will create a good microclimate for the marble pear
The best time to plant is early spring. The soil should already begin to warm up, but sap flow has not yet begun. If this condition is met, the sleeping seedling will wake up in a new place, immediately start rooting, and by the end of the season it will gain strength and gain strength. It will be much easier for such a tree to survive the first winter than planted in the fall.
But the spring planting process still begins in the fall. And it begins with the acquisition of a seedling. This is due to the fact that in the autumn time nurseries dig out seedlings for sale and it is then that there is a wide selection of high-quality planting material. In the spring, they sell what was not sold in the fall. Choose a seedling with well-developed roots, without cones and outgrowths. The bark should be healthy and smooth, free from cracks or damage. The seedling is no more than two years old. Older trees take root worse, lag behind young ones in development, and later enter fruiting.
The roots of the seedling must be well developed
In order for the seedling to winter well, it should be buried in the garden. To do this, you need to dig a small hole 30–40 centimeters deep and 0.8–1.0 m long. A layer of sand or sawdust is placed on the bottom, a seedling is placed in the hole with its roots on the bottom, and with its crown on the edge. Sprinkle the roots with sawdust or sand and watered. So that the roots do not dry out and are better preserved before digging in, they should be dipped in a mash made of mullein and clay with the addition of water. The consistency of the solution should resemble liquid sour cream. When the cold comes, the pit is completely covered with earth, leaving only the top of the tree on the surface.
During storage, the roots of the seedling should be in a humid environment.
Also, the seedling can be stored in the basement if the temperature in it is between 0-5 ° C. In this case, the roots are placed in a humid environment. You can put them in a box with sand, sawdust, or overlay them with moss and moisten.
Plant a pear consistently and correctly performing the following steps:
To create a drainage layer, crushed stone, gravel, broken brick are used
When soaking the roots of the seedling, it is advisable to add root formation stimulants
The seedling is watered with plenty of water
Since the usual agrotechnical methods known to most gardeners are used when growing pears, we will list and describe them briefly.
The drought resistance of the marble pear is low and therefore it requires regular watering. We must not forget that as soon as the pear begins to experience a shortage of water or nutrition, it will immediately begin to shed its fruits. During the growing season, the watering interval should be within two to three weeks. The depth of moistening should be at least 25 centimeters, but you should not turn the near-trunk circle into a swamp. The stem must be protected from direct contact with water with an earthen roller - this will prevent it from drying out. Watering a pear for the first time in spring, you should loosen the soil of the trunk circle after 2-3 days and mulch it well with grass, humus, sunflower husk, etc. A layer of mulch 5-10 centimeters thick will increase the interval between watering and save the gardener from the need for constant loosening the soil. The condition of the mulch should be checked periodically. Slugs, larvae and other pests can settle in it. In this case, the mulch must be removed, the pests must be destroyed and the soil dried. In the future, you can resume mulching. In late autumn, the so-called moisture-charging irrigation is carried out, which contributes to the better winter hardiness of the tree.
The nutrients in the planting pit are sufficient for the growth of the tree in the early years. Usually, feeding is started at the beginning of fruiting, when the need for food increases.
Often, some gardeners do not pay enough attention to tree trimming. Subsequently, this leads to the appearance of diseases and a decrease in yields. It is recommended not to neglect this important step in tree care.
The crowns of medium-sized trees have recently begun to form more often as a bowl. This method provides good ventilation and illumination of the inner volume of the crown. And also provides the convenience of harvesting and caring for the tree. Distinguish between simple and improved formings according to the type of bowl. The improved bowl allows the branches to withstand the heavy loads of the fruit harvest. Work on the formation of the crown is carried out in early spring before bud break. The order of execution is as follows:
When forming a crown like a bowl, you need to constantly make sure that none of the branches takes on the role of a central guide
This pruning is also done in early spring. It consists in removing branches growing inside the crown. It is carried out only if necessary, in case of excessive thickening of the crown. Excessive enthusiasm for thinning leads to the loss of part of the crop.
It is carried out in the summer during the growth of young shoots. The marble pear has a weak ability to shoot. It is possible to increase the branching of young shoots with the help of chasing. The essence of the minting is to shorten the young twigs by 10–12 centimeters, which provokes the growth of new ringlets.
Traditionally included in the list of autumn preparations for winter. At the same time, dry, diseased and injured branches are cut out. If necessary, sanitary pruning is repeated in early spring, if damaged or frostbitten branches are found at the end of the winter.
Making pruning mistakes can damage the tree. The rules are simple:
The basis of the fight against diseases and pests is to carry out preventive and sanitary work.
Every year, the gardener must perform certain work aimed at preventing the appearance of diseases and pests. An indicative list of activities:
The method of spraying treatment is simple, but for those who do it for the first time, we will describe it step by step:
When spraying, skin, respiratory and eye protection should be used
Let's acquaint a novice gardener with the signs of the main possible pear diseases. All of them, as a rule, are fungal and are treated with fungicides.
When affected by this fungus, a black bloom resembling soot appears on the leaves and fruits. Usually, its appearance is preceded by an attack on the pear by aphids, the sweet secretions of which become a breeding ground for the fungus.
When infected with a sooty fungus, a black plaque appears on the leaves, resembling soot
In spring damage, flowers, leaves and young shoots are affected. They fade and subsequently turn black. Outward signs resemble a flame or frost burn. As a result, the disease is sometimes called monilial burn. Affected shoots must be cut out, while capturing 20-30 centimeters of healthy wood. If the disease appears in summer, it causes gray rot of the fruit.
Moniliosis causes fruit rot
Olive spots that appear on the back of the leaves indicate a plant infection with scab. If the fruits are affected, putrefactive spots, skin cracks and hardening of the pulp form on them.
Olive spots that appear on the back of the leaves indicate a plant infection with scab.
As is known, insects are fought by using insecticides. In the first half of the growing season, you can use Decis, Fufanon. With the approach of harvesting, they switch to Iskra, Iskra-Bio.
A small weevil beetle that hibernates in the soil of the trunk circle. In early spring, when the soil warms up, the flower beetle comes to the surface and rises along the trunk to the crown. There it begins by eating away flower and growth buds, then feeds on flowers, young leaves. In May, it lays eggs in the soil, from which larvae appear, feeding on plant roots. Common insecticides are used to control beetles, and you can also collect them by hand. Larvae in the soil can be destroyed by treatment with Diazonin. It acts for twenty days, does not accumulate in the soil and fruits.
The pear flower beetle feeds on the buds, leaves and young shoots of the plant.
A gray, nondescript butterfly lays eggs in the soil, where caterpillars emerge from them. They crawl along the trunk to the crown, penetrate the fruits, which they feed on. The tracks should be stopped in a timely manner by the installed catching belts, as well as the protective whitewashing of the trunks.
The moth moth lays eggs in the soil of the trunk circles
These tiny insects are carried onto the tree by ants that like to feed on the sugary secretions of the pest. Therefore, having taken care of installing trapping belts, the gardener will save himself from the invasion of aphids. If there are ladybugs on the site, they will help to cope with aphids.
If there are ladybugs on the site, they will help to cope with aphids
Pear Marble has a number of advantages that make it attractive to gardeners in many regions of the Middle Lane. Some minor disadvantages - partial self-fertility, shedding of fruits with a lack of moisture - are completely surmountable. The variety can be confidently recommended for growing by both farmers and ordinary gardeners.
Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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Pear orchards, especially in our Volga region, are rare. Few pears in summer cottages. The main reason for this is probably the harsh climate. After all, we have, as they sometimes joke, eleven months a year, winter and autumn, the rest is 5 summer. It is the summer that the plant lacks: the pear grows better where the winters are warmer than ours. Nevertheless, the pear can be found near Kazan, and to the north, and in the Far East, where even Central Russian apple trees freeze out. Only these pears do not bear such luxurious fruits with a piquant taste and flesh that melt in your mouth as the southern ones. Unfortunately, nature did not provide us with the opportunity to choose from our forest pears something tastier than the well-known varieties of Bessemyanka and Tonkovotka. But breeders are working in this direction as well - they have prepared a replacement for Bessemyanka and Tonkovetka.
Pear orchards, especially in our Volga region, are rare. Few pears in summer cottages. The main reason for this is probably the harsh climate. After all, we have, as they sometimes joke, eleven months a year, winter and autumn, the rest is 5 summer. It is the summer that the plant lacks: the pear grows better where the winters are warmer than ours.
Nevertheless, the pear can be found near Kazan, and to the north, and in the Far East, where even Central Russian apple trees freeze out. Only these pears do not bear such luxurious fruits with a piquant taste and flesh that melt in your mouth as the southern ones. Unfortunately, nature did not provide us with the opportunity to choose from our forest pears something tastier than the well-known varieties. Seedless, Tonkovotki... But breeders are working in this direction as well - they have prepared a replacement Bessemyanka and Thin... Variety created Ruddy Berkut, which is at the level of these varieties in winter hardiness, but significantly surpasses them in fruit quality. Bessemyanka in recent years, it has become amazed with scab (up to 5 points) everywhere in Russia, and Thin line gives small fruits (50-60 g) with low taste. Now in the Saratov region the state test of the variety of the autumn ripening period is underway Alla, Original and winter - Saratovka.
Winter hybrids 1-31-29 (with the working title Katyusha) and 1-40-158 (Kondratyevka). Of the new varieties included in the State Register, the strongest is Ruddy Berkut... According to the Saratov Experimental Gardening Station, a tree of this variety should have a large feeding area - 8x4 and even 8x6 m.It is somewhat inferior to this variety in terms of growth Augustine... Trees with medium vigor Rossoshanskaya beautiful, very low-growing variety Sverdlovsk... From autumn with restrained growth, both varieties, as well as Original and Alla, and Original has a rounded tree shape, like an apple tree. Winter ripening varieties Saratovka, Kondratyevka, Katyusha with restrained growth. Now a little more about these varieties.
Ruddy Berkut... Summer ripening variety. The fruits are medium-sized, weighing 70-80 g. Their shape is elongated, pear-shaped, the main color is greenish-yellow, the integumentary color is orange-red over the entire surface of the fruit. The pulp is yellowish, dense, juicy. The taste is sweet and sour. The fruits are stored for a month and can be used to make jams, compotes and juices. The beginning of fruiting on a vigorous rootstock in the 5-6th year after planting in the garden. Winter hardiness and drought resistance are high (at the level Thinkovets and Bessemyanki). The variety is resistant to fungal diseases, can be used as a skeleton-forming and rootstock for other varieties.
Augustine... Late summer variety. The tree is vigorous, compact. The crown is broad-pyramidal, dense, leafy. The variety is early-growing, begins to bear fruit on a vigorous rootstock in the 5-6th year. The fruits are large, weighing 200-400 g. Their shape is broad-pear-shaped, the surface is bumpy. The main color is yellow. Cover color in the form of an orange-red blush over the entire surface of the fruit. The pulp is white, juicy, semi-oily, sour-sweet, tender, with a nutmeg aroma. Pears are stored for 1-2 months. Fruit transportability is good. They are intended primarily for fresh consumption.
Sverdlovsk... The magazine described this variety in detail in No. 3 for this year. I will only add that it is possible to form a flat crown of a tree like a palmette, which contributes to additional illumination of the crown.
Original... A variety of autumn ripening period, winter-hardy, fruitful, resistant to fungal diseases, early-fruiting - gives the first fruits in the 4th-5th year and bears fruit annually. Fruit weight 100-180 g. The pulp is juicy, oily, sweet and sour taste. The fruits are stored until November.
Alla... A variety of autumn ripening, winter-hardy, annually fruiting, resistant to fungal diseases. Fruits are regular pear-shaped, weighing 100-120 g. The pulp is white, oily, without stony inclusions. The term for fruit consumption is September-November.
Saratovka... A variety of winter ripening, winter-hardy, annually fruiting, fruitful. Fruits are medium in size, weighing 120-200 g. When ripe, the pears are green with a slight blush, while the main color is yellow when used for consumption. The pulp is white, buttery, without astringency, excellent taste. The fruits are stored until February.
Katyusha... Late winter ripening variety. The first harvests can be obtained in the 4-5th year after planting in the garden, in the conditions of the Saratov region the tree is quite winter-hardy. Fruit weight 110-150 g, maximum - up to 200 g. Fruits when picked (end of September - October) are green, on the sunny side - with a blush. Consumer maturity occurs after February, by which time the fruits become light yellow with a blush. Stored until May. When removed, the pulp is inedible, at consumer maturity it is juicy and oily.
Kondratyevka... A variety of winter ripening, winter-hardy, fruitful, bears fruit annually. The first fruiting occurs in the 4th-5th year. The tree is of medium vigor, well leafy. Fruits are typically pear-shaped, uncolored, greenish at removable maturity, yellow at consumer maturity with a pronounced rustiness near the stalk. The weight of the fruit is 120-200 g, the pulp is oily, juicy, without stony. The fruits are stored until January.
G. Kondratieva, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Pear "Marble" is one of the most popular varieties in Russia. The history of the emergence of this variety is associated with the name of the outstanding Soviet breeder Ivan Michurin. He managed to develop a pear variety that could grow in Russia's harsh climate. It was the Bere Zimnyaya Michurina variety. Then Michurin's students working at the gardening station in the city of Rossosh, located in the Voronezh region, crossed this variety with the Forest Beauty variety. And it turned out "Marble" pear. The authors of the variety are A.M. Ulyanishchev and G.D. Impudent. In 1965, the variety was entered in the State Register and began to be grown in the Central, Central Black Earth, Volgo-Vyatka and Nizhnevolzhsky regions.
Pear "Marble": description of the variety
Pear "Marble" is an early autumn variety. The tree of this variety is of medium height - up to 4 meters, but has powerful branches and a crown of a pyramidal shape of medium density. Shoot formation is weak. The bark on the trunk and main branches is predominantly gray-green in color. The leaves are green, not pubescent, of medium size, have sharp corners near the shoots, ovoid, finely toothed edges and a rounded base. The buds are triangular and brown in color.
The flowers are double, white, saucer-shaped, but during the formation of the fruits they acquire a slightly pinkish color. The diameter of the flower is no more than 3 cm. The inflorescences are of the umbrella-shaped type and consist of 8-9 small flowers. Another nuance: the marble pear is distinguished by its early flowering period.
The fruits of "Marble" are medium or slightly more than medium in size. Fruit weight ranges from 130 to 170 grams, but individual pears can be large - up to 200-220 grams. The fruits generally have a regular short pear-shaped shape. The surface of pears is smooth, dense, under the peel there are small inclusions of a rusty color.
The main color of the fruit is greenish-yellow. But on the side of the "Marble" pear there is always a brown-red marble spot, which is why this variety was named that way.
The flesh of pears is creamy or white with a coarse-grained structure. Taste qualities of "Marble" are excellent, its pulp is juicy, tender, melting, with a pleasant aroma, that is, it is characterized by a significant predominance of sugars over acids. Tasting pear score on a five-point scale - 4.8 points.
Despite the fact that the fruits of this variety are very sweet - the sugar content is 10.7%, they do not increase the appetite, therefore the "Marble" pear can also be used in dietary food intended for diabetics and obese people. Moreover, the use of pears "Marble" improves the functioning of the pancreas and has a refreshing effect on the body as a whole.
The advantages of the variety include good yield, high transportability, rather long shelf life - up to 60 days and, of course, very tasty fruits. The disadvantages of litter "Marble" are average frost resistance, poor drought resistance, fruiting 6-7 years after planting, susceptibility to powdery mildew.
Pear "Marble": planting and care
This variety is unpretentious, however, the planting area should be as illuminated as possible and protected from strong winds. The Marble variety prefers nutritious, loose, loamy soils, where the tree gives the most generous harvest, especially with proper care. On other soils, peat, compost or humus should be applied before planting.
After planting, special attention should be paid to watering, because "Marble" does not tolerate drought. With a lack of moisture in the soil, the fruits may crumble prematurely. The irrigation rate with the average rainfall is 2-3 buckets per 1 square meter. m. In dry summers, the amount of water is doubled.
You can plant a young tree in both autumn and spring. A place for planting is chosen with fertile soil, preferably in an area closed from the influence of the wind on the south side. A hole is dug to a depth of 50 cm so that the root system fits without difficulty. The top fertile soil layer, ash, mineral fertilizers are added to the planting pit, everything is mixed well.
Before planting, the seedling is kept in water or a solution that stimulates root formation for about an hour. If there are broken or damaged roots, they must be trimmed. The seedling is placed in a hole and carefully begin to sprinkle with earth. Having buried the plant in half, pour out a couple of buckets of water, then you need to wait until the soil settles, and after that they fall asleep with the rest. So that 7-8 cm remains to the vaccination site.
In order not to forget, they immediately install a support to which the pear seedling is attached. Then a small roller is made around the tree so that the water gets to the plant as much as possible during watering. So that moisture does not evaporate so quickly, the soil around the seedling is mulched. For this, grass, sawdust, ornamental bark are suitable, it is important that the layer of material is slightly at a distance from the trunk.