Competently organizing the backyard territory of a summer cottage is not only painstaking work, but also a whole science. That is why many novice summer residents, due to lack of experience, make various mistakes.
In winter, prices for summer cottages are very attractive, but there are not so many offers for sale, since many owners are withdrawing their ads from sale due to difficulties with display. There are many downsides to buying a summer cottage in winter. For example, because of the snow, it is impossible to see the adjacent territory, the soil, assess its fertility, the presence of weak points of the site (for example, is there an accumulation of stagnant water or swampiness), which can bring a huge amount of trouble and money costs in the spring.
Also in winter it is difficult to inspect fruit and berry plantations, trees, shrubs, the presence of paths on the site. Construction debris or other impurities can be hidden under the snow. It is difficult to assess the landscape of the area, the quality of the roads in the dacha association, the availability of communications on the site. And inspection in the cold is unlikely to be a pleasure. Therefore, it is better to postpone the purchase until a more favorable season.
Before planting a vegetable garden and fruit trees, it is necessary to take into account the climate, quality of the land, lighting, choose the right place for planting a particular plant. Therefore, before the sowing season, it is necessary to draw up a clear plan of where the beds will be located, where is the flower bed, and where is the garden.
Some conditions must be met when planning. They try to allocate a sunny place for the garden, without shading from the south side. They calculate how many beds need to be made for vegetables, how many for herbs. For planting trees, they choose the southeastern part of the site and plant first low-growing trees, and behind them - higher and spreading ones: so they will not shade the low ones. For the cultivation of thermophilic crops (tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers), greenhouses are installed, and here, too, its location must be included in the plan, since for it the most successful location is east-west.
Coniferous plants perfectly clean the air, trap dust and exhaust gases. Essential oils and phytoncides scare away many insect pests from the summer cottage. In the summer, the needles are used for mulching the beds, and in the winter they are an excellent covering material.
For the successful growth of conifers, several conditions must be met: when planting between a tree and a fence or buildings, there should be a distance of about 5 meters, between pines and spruces - from 2 meters, between conifers with a more compact and miniature crown (thuja, juniper, yew, dwarf pine and spruce) it is enough to retreat 1-1.5 meters from each other. The distance between conifers and fruit trees must be at least 5 meters.
The ability of a seedling to take root quickly depends on its age. Buying an adult plant in the hope that it is about to bear fruit is wrong. The older the plant, the more problematic it will be for it to take root in your area, because a three-year-old tree has a very powerful root system, and when such a seedling is sold, the roots have to be damaged and chopped down, as a result of which the tree is overloaded for a long time and stops growing. Therefore, it will be safer to buy an annual tree, which will immediately take root and begin to develop and grow.
Planting plants directly into the turf is considered acceptable when the seedling is on the verge of drying out and death, and it is urgently necessary to dig it in. But it is still better to choose a different soil for planting, since the sod is uncultivated land, overgrown with grass and weeds, it lacks nutrients for the successful growth of the plant.
It is preferable to plant unpretentious and low perennial crops and flowers near the neighboring fence, so that the place is simply not empty and pleasing to the eye. After all, no one is immune from interneighborhood wars for territory, and if your neighbor decides to build a building near the fence or plant tall trees that shade your territory, the plants planted next to someone else's site will also suffer. And if you place valuable plants or fruit trees and shrubs that love light along the fence, they will eventually have to look for a new place. Or part of your crop will certainly fall from the tree to your neighbor's plot.
Any gardener needs to know which plant is planted in a particular place. In order not to forget where and what you planted, use tags that indicate the name of the plant, variety, planting time and other data that are important for the summer resident. Loop labels are very convenient, especially for fruit trees, because they are made of durable plastic, and you can write information with a marker that will not be erased under the influence of precipitation.
For a seedling, root development is necessary, and in the first 5 years after planting, it is not recommended to plant any plants under the tree, but on the contrary - the ground needs to be loosened and weeds weeded. When the plant takes root and the root system is finally formed, you can make a flower bed of perennial shade-tolerant flowers, taking into account the near-stem circle, which ranges from 2 to 3 meters, depending on the age of the tree. You need to dig the soil in the trunk circle carefully and shallowly so as not to damage the roots.
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When processing greenhouses, many gardeners also make mistakes. The land must be cultivated a week before planting. If you do this earlier, then Fitosporin will not help, since the beneficial bacteria will not become active. For a positive effect, they spray not only the plants, but the entire greenhouse.
Processing is carried out not every day, but throughout the season. Vegetables - once every 30 days, and fruit plantations - 2 times a month. Moreover, the agent is poured under the root of the plant, otherwise it will not work. The treatment is not carried out in rainy and sunny weather, since the hay stick dies under such conditions, and the drug becomes ineffective. Therefore, they are sprayed early in the morning or in the evening, and after the rain they wait at least 3 hours.
The benefits of Fitosporin will be noticeable only if used correctly in compliance with all the rules. And when working with it, you should definitely wear gloves and wash your hands with soap after use, because it contains Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can negatively affect human health.
If the seedlings are sown too densely, then you can be sure that the plants will not have enough nutrition. Only a transplant can save in such a situation. Each seedling must be allocated 5 square meters. cm and at the time of transplanting, it is imperative to deepen the stems to the level of the first two leaves. This will trigger the formation and subsequent growth of additional roots.
Without it, the seedlings are unnecessarily stretched and do not take root well in the beds. To change the situation, you should start hardening when the daytime outside temperature is set at + 10 ° C.
You need to start with the daily opening of the window for 1 hour, then increase the time to 3-5 hours. After 5 days, you can begin to take out the plants to the balcony, loggia or terrace. The first couple of days it is enough to leave there for 2 hours.
Every day, you can increase the time by another 2 hours, bringing them to leave the seedlings cool for the whole day.
If among the seedlings, softened, dark-colored stems with falling petals were found, it means that they are affected by the “black leg” disease. Such seedlings must be destroyed immediately. Otherwise, all plants may die.
Do not make the listed mistakes, and your work will be crowned with success!
We continue to analyze the mistakes and shortcomings that summer residents often make when preparing a site for wintering. One of the stages of such preparation, which causes a lot of controversy and even myths, is the winter shelter of plants.
If you cover them earlier than necessary, or if you do it wrong, then they are likely to support. Or get hit by a fungal infection. Remember that the entire upper, aerial part of the plants works as an indicator that "tells" the root system what is happening up there and what needs to be prepared for.
The principle is: any perennial plant for successful wintering must survive a frost at -4 without shelter. -7 ° C, which is normal.
Often gardeners, especially beginners, tend to cover most of the plants in the garden and even insulate fruit trees. But this is extra work and a colossal investment of time and materials! There are not so many plants that actually need it. And it is also of great importance type of shelter... There are also many stereotypes and myths here.
So, for example, you should not rely on spruce branches - it mainly traps snow, which is generally good. But at the same time, it does not insulate the plant, i.e. does not solve the problem. In addition, it is disposable, in the spring it must be removed, the needles crumble, it is difficult to collect them. But the main difficulty is where to get it. There should be a forest nearby, and spruce branches should be low. Do not chop trees, after all!
But covering materials (lutrasil, spunbond) are conveniently stored: after use, they are collected in large bags and supplied with a sign with a signature what exactly this shelter is intended for. Or you can simply tie them up with a rope and attach a sign.
There are many cover options. The following articles will help you make your choice:
U-shaped structures for shelters
However, there are exceptions, and some plants still need to be folded down. Typically, these are groundcover or curly (such as climbing roses or clematis), or those that form thickets, and it is difficult for them to make shelter - for example, raspberries.
So, what kind of plants and how should you cover for the winter?